Document

Filed Pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3)
Registration No. 333-266930
PROSPECTUS
Pagaya Technologies Ltd.
Up to 40,139,607 Class A Ordinary Shares
This prospectus relates to the offer and sale of up to 40,139,607 Class A Ordinary Shares of Pagaya Technologies Ltd., no par value (“Class A Ordinary Shares”), by B. Riley Principal Capital II, LLC (“B. Riley Principal Capital II” or the “Selling Securityholder”).
The Class A Ordinary Shares to which this prospectus relates have been or may be issued by us to B. Riley Principal Capital II pursuant to an ordinary shares purchase agreement, dated as of August 17, 2022, that we entered into with B. Riley Principal Capital II (the “Purchase Agreement”). Such Class A Ordinary Shares include (i) up to 40,000,000 Class A Ordinary Shares that we may, in our sole discretion, elect to sell to B. Riley Principal Capital II, from time to time after the date of this prospectus, pursuant to the Purchase Agreement and (ii) 139,607 Class A Ordinary Shares we issued, and may issue if certain conditions are met, in each case, to B. Riley Principal Capital II as consideration for its commitment to purchase our Class A Ordinary Shares in one or more purchases that we may, in our sole discretion, direct them to make, from time to time after the date of this prospectus, pursuant to the Purchase Agreement.
We are not selling any securities under this prospectus and will not receive any of the proceeds from the sale of our Class A Ordinary Shares by the Selling Securityholder. However, we may receive up to $300,000,000 aggregate gross proceeds under the Purchase Agreement from sales of our Class A Ordinary Shares we may elect to make to B. Riley Principal Capital II pursuant to the Purchase Agreement after the date of this prospectus. See “The Committed Equity Financing” for a description of the Purchase Agreement and “Selling Securityholder” for additional information regarding B. Riley Principal Capital II.
Our Class A Ordinary Shares are currently listed on The Nasdaq Capital Market (“Nasdaq”) under the symbol “PGY.” On April 28, 2023, the last reported sales price of our Class A Ordinary Shares was $0.867 per share. The Class A Ordinary Shares have recently experienced extreme volatility in price and trading volume. From June 23, 2022 to April 28, 2023, the closing price of Class A Ordinary Shares on Nasdaq ranged from as low as $0.57 to as high as $29.95 and daily trading volume ranged from approximately 51,333 to 66,396,597 shares. During this time, we have not experienced any material changes in our financial condition or results of operations that would explain such price volatility or trading volume. Please see “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Ownership of our Class A Ordinary Shares and Warrants—The price of the Class A Ordinary Shares and the price of the public warrants have been and may continue to be volatile” and the other risk factors in the section titled “Risk Factors.''
B. Riley Principal Capital II may sell or otherwise dispose of our Class A Ordinary Shares described in this prospectus in a number of different ways and at varying prices. See “Plan of Distribution (Conflict of Interest)” for more information about how B. Riley Principal Capital II may sell or otherwise dispose of our Class A Ordinary Shares pursuant to this prospectus. B. Riley Principal Capital II is an “underwriter” within the meaning of Section 2(a)(11) of the Securities Act of 1933 (as amended, the “Securities Act”).
In connection with the extraordinary general meeting of shareholders (“Extraordinary General Meeting”) held by EJFA (as defined below) on June 17, 2022 to approve the Transactions (as defined below), holders of 27,805,123 of EJFA’s Class A Ordinary Shares, or approximately 96.7% of the shares with redemption rights, exercised their right to redeem their shares for cash at a redemption price of approximately $10.00 per share, for an aggregate redemption amount of $278.1 million. As of March 31 2023, there were 704,103,132 Pagaya Ordinary Shares (as defined below) outstanding, including 529,168,740 Class A Ordinary Shares outstanding, of which 288,630,215 Class A Ordinary Shares were held by non-affiliates of the Company (our “public float”). The Class A Ordinary Shares being offered for resale in this prospectus (the “Resale Securities”) represent a substantial percentage of our public float. Assuming the issuance of all of the Resale Securities to the Selling Securityholder under the Purchase Agreement, the Resale Securities would represent approximately 12% of our public float, approximately 7% of outstanding Class A Ordinary Shares and approximately 5% of outstanding Pagaya Ordinary Shares as of March 31, 2023 (after giving effect to the issuance of all of the Resale Securities). The sale of all of the Resale Securities, or the perception that these sales could occur, could result in a significant decline in the public trading price of our Class A Ordinary Shares. In addition to the Selling Securityholder, certain other shareholders, including the PIPE Investors, the Sponsor and Pagaya Equity Holders (each as defined below and collectively, the “Additional Sellers”) may sell a substantial number of our securities pursuant to a separate resale prospectus (the “Additional Prospectus”). The sale of the Resale Securities together with the sale of the securities held by the Additional Sellers, or the perception that these sales could occur, could depress the market price of our securities.
We will pay the expenses incurred in registering under the Securities Act the offer and sale of our Class A Ordinary Shares to which this prospectus relates by the Selling Securityholder, including legal and accounting fees. We have also engaged Northland Securities, Inc. to act as a “qualified independent underwriter” in this offering, whose fees and expenses will be borne by the Selling Securityholder. See “Plan of Distribution (Conflict of Interest).”
We are an “emerging growth company” and a “foreign private issuer,” each as defined under the U.S. federal securities laws and, as such, may elect to comply with certain reduced public company disclosure and reporting requirements. See “Summary of the Prospectus—Emerging Growth Company Status” and “Summary of the Prospectus—Foreign Private Issuer Exemptions,” respectively.
Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully review the risks and uncertainties described in the section titled “Risk Factors” beginning on page 18 of this prospectus, and under similar headings in any amendments or supplements to this prospectus.
None of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, the Israel Securities Authority or any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of the securities or determined if this prospectus is accurate or adequate. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
The date of this prospectus is May 1, 2023.



TABLE OF CONTENTS
i


ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS
This prospectus is part of a registration statement on Form F-1 that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) using a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, the Selling Securityholder may, from time to time, sell the securities described in this prospectus. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale by the Selling Securityholder of the securities described in this prospectus.
A prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information included in this prospectus. Any statement contained in this prospectus will be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in such prospectus supplement modifies or supersedes such statement. Any statement so modified will be deemed to constitute a part of this prospectus only as so modified, and any statement so superseded will be deemed not to constitute a part of this prospectus. You should rely only on the information contained in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus. See “Where You Can Find More Information.”
Neither we nor the Selling Securityholder have authorized anyone to provide any information or to make any representations other than those contained in this prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement or any free writing prospectus we have prepared. We and the Selling Securityholder take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. This prospectus is an offer to sell only the securities offered hereby and only under circumstances and in jurisdictions where it is lawful to do so. No dealer, salesperson or other person is authorized to give any information or to represent anything not contained in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus. This prospectus is not an offer to sell securities, and it is not soliciting an offer to buy securities, in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement is accurate only as of the date on the front of those documents only, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or any applicable prospectus supplement, or any sale of a security. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates.
This prospectus contains summaries of certain provisions contained in some of the documents described herein, but reference is made to the actual documents for complete information. All of the summaries are qualified in their entirety by the actual documents. Copies of some of the documents referred to herein have been filed, will be filed or will be incorporated by reference as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and you may obtain copies of those documents as described below under “Where You Can Find More Information.”
We have proprietary rights to trademarks used in this prospectus that are important to our business, many of which are registered (or pending registration) under applicable intellectual property laws. This prospectus contains references to trademarks, trade names and service marks belonging to other entities. Solely for convenience, trademarks, trade names and service marks referred to in this prospectus may appear without the ® or TM symbols, but such references are not intended to indicate, in any way, that the applicable licensor will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, its rights to these trademarks, trade names and service marks. We do not intend our use or display of other companies’ trade names, trademarks or service marks to imply a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of us by, any other companies.
On June 22, 2022 (the “EJFA Closing Date”), Pagaya consummated its previously announced business combination pursuant to that certain Agreement and Plan of Merger, dated as of September 15, 2021 (the “Merger Agreement”), by and among EJF Acquisition Corp., a Cayman Islands exempted company (“EJFA”), Pagaya and Rigel Merger Sub (“Merger Sub”), a Cayman Islands exempted company and wholly-owned subsidiary of Pagaya. As contemplated by the Merger Agreement, Merger Sub merged with and into EJFA (the “Merger”), with EJFA surviving the Merger as a wholly-owned subsidiary of Pagaya (the “Surviving Company”). As a result of the Merger, and upon consummation of the Merger and the other transactions contemplated by the Merger Agreement (the “Transactions”), the shareholders of EJFA became shareholders of Pagaya. On the EJFA Closing Date, immediately following the Merger, the Surviving Company merged (the “Second Merger”) with and into Rigel Merger Sub II, Ltd., a Cayman Islands exempted company and wholly-owned subsidiary of Pagaya (“Merger Sub II”), with Merger Sub II continuing as the surviving company after the Second Merger.
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Unless otherwise indicated or the context otherwise requires, all references in this prospectus to “Pagaya,” “the Company,” “we,” “us” and “our” refer to Pagaya Technologies Ltd., a company organized under the laws of the State of Israel, together with its subsidiaries following the Merger.
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MARKET PRICE INFORMATION
Our Class A Ordinary Shares and public warrants are currently listed on Nasdaq under the symbols “PGY” and “PGYWW,” respectively.
On April 28, 2023, the closing price for each Class A Ordinary Share and public warrant was $0.867 and $0.0805, respectively.
Holders of our securities should obtain current market quotations for their securities. The market price of our securities could vary at any time.
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SELECTED DEFINITIONS
2016 Plan” refers to the 2016 Equity Incentive Plan of Pagaya and Stock Option Sub-Plan for United States Persons thereunder.
2021 Plan” refers to the 2021 Equity Incentive Plan of Pagaya and the Stock Option Sub-Plan for United States Persons thereunder.
2021 Credit Facility” refers to a Credit Agreement, dated as of December 23, 2021, by and among Pagaya Technologies Ltd., the lenders from time to time party thereto and JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A., as administrative agent, as amended.
2022 Plan” refers to the 2022 Equity Incentive Plan of Pagaya and the Sub-Plan for Israeli Participants thereunder.
ABS” refers to asset-backed securitizations.
Adjusted EBITDA” means net income (loss) attributable to Pagaya Shareholders, excluding share-based compensation expense, change in fair value of warrant liability, non-recurring expenses associated with the EJFA Merger, interest expense, depreciation expense, and provision for income taxes.
Adjusted Net Income (Loss)” means net income (loss) attributable to Pagaya Shareholders, excluding share-based compensation expense, change in fair value of warrant liability, impairment charges and non-recurring expenses associated with the EJFA Merger.
Assignment, Assumption and Amendment Agreement” refers to the Assignment, Assumption and Amendment Agreement, dated as of June 22, 2022, by and among EJFA and Continental, pursuant to which EJFA assigned all of its rights, title and interest in the EJFA Warrant Agreement to Pagaya.
B. Riley Principal Capital II” refers to B. Riley Principal Capital II, LLC.
Capital Restructuring” refers to, collectively, the Reclassification, the Preferred Share Conversion and the Stock Split as part of the EJFA Merger.
CFPB” refers to the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau.
Class A Ordinary Shares” refers to the Class A ordinary shares, no par value, of Pagaya, following the Capital Restructuring, which carry voting rights of one vote per share of Pagaya.
Class B Ordinary Shares” refers to the Class B ordinary Shares, no par value, of Pagaya, following the Capital Restructuring, which carry voting rights in the form of 10 votes per share of Pagaya.
Code” refers to the U.S. Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended.
Companies Law” refers to the Israeli Companies Law, 5759-1999, as amended, and the regulations promulgated thereunder.
Continental” refers to Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company, the transfer agent, warrant agent and trustee of Pagaya.
Credit Agreement” refers to that certain Senior Secured Revolving Credit Agreement, dated as of September 2, 2022, by and among Pagaya, as the borrower, the lenders from time to time party thereto and Silicon Valley Bank, as administrative agent and collateral agent. The Credit Agreement is incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit 10.5 of this prospectus.
Darwin” refers to Darwin Homes, Inc., a Delaware corporation.
EEA” refers to the European Economic Area.
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Effective Time” refers to the effective time of the EJFA Merger.
EJF Investor” refers to EJF Debt Opportunities Master Fund, LP, a Delaware limited liability company, an affiliate of EJFA.
EJF Subscription Agreement” refers to that certain Subscription Agreement, dated as of September 15, 2021, by and between Pagaya and the EJF Investor, providing for the purchase by the EJF Investor at the EJFA Closing of up to 20 million Class A Ordinary Shares at a price per share of $10.00, for an aggregate purchase price of up to $200 million.
EJFA” refers to EJF Acquisition Corp., a Cayman Islands exempted company.
EJFA Class A Ordinary Shares” refers to the class A ordinary shares, par value $0.0001 per share, of EJFA.
EJFA Class B Ordinary Shares” refers to the class B ordinary shares, par value $0.0001 per share, of EJFA.
EJFA Closing” refers to the consummation of the EJFA Merger.
EJFA Closing Date” refers to June 22, 2022.
EJFA IPO” refers to the initial public offering of EJFA, which closed on March 1, 2021.
EJFA Merger” refers to the merger of EJFA Merger Sub with and into EJFA, as contemplated by the EJFA Merger Agreement.
EJFA Merger Agreement” refers to that certain Agreement and Plan of Merger, dated as of September 15, 2021, by and among EJFA, Pagaya and Merger Sub.
EJFA Merger Sub” refers to Rigel Merger Sub Inc., a Cayman Islands exempted company and a wholly-owned subsidiary of Pagaya.
EJFA Merger Sponsor” refers to Wilson Boulevard LLC, a Delaware limited liability company.
EJFA Private Placement Warrants” refers to the 5,166,667 private placement warrants of EJFA entitling the holder to purchase one EJFA Class A Ordinary Share per warrant.
EJFA Public Warrants” refers to the 9,583,333 public warrants of EJFA entitling the holder to purchase one EJFA Class A Ordinary Share per warrant.
EJFA Warrants” refers to the EJFA Private Placement Warrants and the EJFA Public Warrants.
EJFA Warrant Agreement” refers to the Warrant Agreement, dated as of February 24, 2021, between EJFA and Continental.
Equity Financing Purchase Agreement” refers to the Ordinary Shares Purchase Agreement, dated as of August 17, 2022, by and between Pagaya and B. Riley Principal Capital II.
Equity Financing Registration Rights Agreement” refers to the Registration Rights Agreement, dated as of August 17, 2022, by and between Pagaya and B. Riley Principal Capital II.
Exchange Act” refers to the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the regulations promulgated thereunder.
FDIC” refers to the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation.
Financing Vehicles” refers to (i) funds managed or advised by Pagaya or one of its affiliates, (ii) securitization vehicles sponsored or administered by Pagaya or one of its affiliates and (iii) other similar vehicles.
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Founders” refers to the three founders of Pagaya (including any trusts the beneficiary of which is a founder of Pagaya and to the extent that a founder of Pagaya has the right to vote the shares held by such trust).
FRB” refers to the U.S. Federal Reserve Board.
Investment Advisers Act” refers to the U.S. Investment Advisers Act of 1940, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.
Investment Company Act” refers to the U.S. Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.
Israeli Securities Law” refers to the Israeli Securities Law, 5728-1968, as amended, and the regulations promulgated thereunder.
ITA” refers to the Israel Tax Authority.
ITO” refers to the Israeli Income Tax Ordinance [New Version], 5721-1961, and the regulations, rules and orders promulgated thereunder, as amended.
Nasdaq” refers to The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC.
Network Capital” refers to the total capital currently invested in assets originated by Partners with the assistance of our AI technology and network and acquired by a Financing Vehicle plus capital committed by asset investors that is available for a Financing Vehicle to acquire new assets.
Network Volume” refers to the gross dollar amount of assets that are originated by Partners with the assistance of Pagaya’s AI technology and are acquired by Financing Vehicles.
OCC” refers to the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency.
Pagaya” refers to Pagaya Technologies Ltd., together with its consolidated subsidiaries as a consolidated entity, a company organized under the laws of the State of Israel.
Pagaya Articles” refers to the Articles of Association of Pagaya, dated as of June 22, 2022.
Pagaya Board” refers to the board of directors of Pagaya.
Pagaya Class A-1 Preferred Shares” refers to the Class A-1 Preferred Shares, nominal value NIS 0.01 each, of Pagaya, prior to the Capital Restructuring.
Pagaya Class A Preferred Shares” refers to the Class A Preferred Shares, nominal value NIS 0.01 each, of Pagaya, prior to the Capital Restructuring.
Pagaya Class B Preferred Shares” refers to the Class B Preferred Shares, nominal value NIS 0.01 each, of Pagaya, prior to the Capital Restructuring.
Pagaya Class C Preferred Shares” refers to the Class C Preferred Shares, nominal value NIS 0.01 each, of Pagaya, prior to the Capital Restructuring.
Pagaya Class D Preferred Shares” refers to the Class D Preferred Shares, nominal value NIS 0.01 each, of Pagaya, prior to the Capital Restructuring.
Pagaya Class E Preferred Shares” refers to the Class E Preferred Shares, nominal value NIS 0.01 each, of Pagaya, prior to the Capital Restructuring.
Pagaya Option” refers to each outstanding and unexercised option to purchase Pagaya Ordinary Shares issued pursuant to the Pagaya Share Plans, whether or not then vested or fully exercisable.
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Pagaya Ordinary Shares” refers to the ordinary shares, NIS 0.01 each, of Pagaya, prior to the Capital Restructuring, provided, however, that after the Preferred Share Conversion and Reclassification, every reference to Pagaya Ordinary Shares shall be to the Class A Ordinary Shares and Class B Ordinary Shares, collectively.
Pagaya Preferred Shares” refers to the Pagaya Class A Preferred Shares, Pagaya Class A-1 Preferred Shares, Pagaya Class B Preferred Shares, Pagaya Class C Preferred Shares, Pagaya Class D Preferred Shares and Pagaya Class E Preferred Shares, prior to the Capital Restructuring.
Pagaya Legacy Share Plans” refers to the 2016 Plan and the 2021 Plan, collectively.
Pagaya Shareholders” refers, prior to the EJFA Merger, to the shareholders of Pagaya and, now, to the current shareholders of Pagaya.
Pagaya Voting Agreement” refers to that certain Company Voting Agreement, dated as of September 15, 2021, by and among EJFA and certain of the Pagaya Shareholders.
Pagaya Warrant” refers to a warrant exercisable for Pagaya Class A Ordinary Share.
Partners” refers to financial institutions including, among others, banks, peer-to-peer lending networks, online marketplaces, non-bank finance companies, fintechs, financing intermediaries, consumer product companies, brokers, agents and credit unions that have entered into arrangements to utilize Pagaya’s AI technology and network to assist them in creating and originating credit and other assets that may be acquired by a Financing Vehicle.
PFIC” refers to a passive foreign investment company.
PIPE Investment” refers to the investment by the EJF Investor and by those certain other PIPE Investors pursuant to the Subscription Agreements.
PIPE Investors” refers to the EJF Investor and those certain other investors participating in the PIPE Investment pursuant to the Subscription Agreements.
Preferred Majority” refers to the holders of a majority of the Pagaya Preferred Shares outstanding at a given time prior to the Capital Restructuring, voting together as a single class on an as-converted basis.
Preferred Share Conversion” refers to the conversion of the outstanding Pagaya Preferred Shares into Pagaya Ordinary Shares in accordance with the EJFA Merger Agreement.
private placement warrants” refers to the outstanding and unexercised warrants to purchase Class A Ordinary Shares issued by private placement, including those issued and exchanged for the EJFA Private Placement Warrants in connection with the EJFA Merger.
public warrants” refers to the outstanding and unexercised warrants to purchase Class A Ordinary Shares issued to holders of EJFA Public Warrants in connection with the EJFA Merger.
Reclassification” refers to the reclassification of each Pagaya Ordinary Share that was outstanding immediately following the Preferred Share Conversion (and for the avoidance of doubt, any warrant, right or other security convertible into or exchangeable or exercisable therefor, including each Pagaya Ordinary Share underlying any Pagaya Option), into one Class A Ordinary Share or one Class B Ordinary Share, as applicable, as set forth in the EJFA Merger Agreement.
Registration Rights Agreement” refers to the Amended and Restated Registration Rights Agreement entered into at EJFA Closing, by and among Pagaya, EJFA, the Sponsor and certain equity holders of Pagaya named therein, replacing EJFA’s and Pagaya’s existing registration rights agreements.
Revolving Credit Facility” refers to the 3-year senior secured revolving credit facility provided for by the Credit Agreement.
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Rule 10b5-1 Plan” refers to an individual share trading plan in accordance with Rule 10b5-1 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, in which the individual will contract with a broker to buy or sell shares on a periodic basis.
SEC” refers to the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission.
Securities Act” refers to the U.S. Securities Act of 1933, as amended.
Selling Securityholders” refers to the selling securityholders identified in this prospectus.
SFR” refers to single-family rental properties and/or business.
SFR Partners” refers to both the Company’s Financing Vehicles that serve as SFR property owners and any other property owners that the Company and its subsidiaries, specifically Darwin, partners with for property management and other SFR-related operations.
Stock Split” refers to the stock split of the Pagaya Ordinary Shares into a number of Pagaya Ordinary Shares calculated in accordance with the terms of the Merger Agreement such that each Pagaya Ordinary Share will have a value of $10.00 per share immediately following the Capital Restructuring on the basis of the Company Value (as defined in the EJFA Merger Agreement) set out in the EJFA Merger Agreement.
Subscription Agreements” refers to the EJF Subscription Agreement and the other subscription agreements entered into by the PIPE Investors, the form of which is incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit 10.8 of Pagaya’s Registration Statement on Form F-4 filed with the SEC on April 7, 2022.
Treasury Regulations” refers to the regulations promulgated by the U.S. Department of the Treasury pursuant to and in respect of provisions of the Code.
United States” or “U.S.” refers to the United States of America, including the states, the District of Columbia and its territories and possessions.
U.S. Dollars” or “$” refers to U.S. dollars.
U.S. GAAP” refers to the U.S. generally accepted accounting principles.
U.S. Holder” refers to any beneficial owner of Pagaya securities, that is, for U.S. federal income tax purposes:
an individual who is a citizen or resident of the United States;
a corporation (including any entity treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes) created or organized in or under the laws of the United States or any state thereof or the District of Columbia;
an estate whose income is subject to U.S. federal income taxation regardless of its source; or
a trust if (i) a court within the United States is able to exercise primary supervision over the trust’s administration and one or more U.S. persons have the authority to control all of the trust’s substantial decisions, or (ii) the trust has a valid election in effect under applicable Treasury Regulations to be treated as a U.S. person.
VWAP” refers to, on any trading day on or after the EJFA Closing Date, the volume weighted-average of the trading prices of the Class A Ordinary Shares trading during such day on the principal securities exchange or securities market on which Class A Ordinary Shares are then traded or quoted for purchase and sale (as reported by Bloomberg L.P. or, if not reported therein, in another authoritative source selected by Pagaya), except if there occurs any change in the outstanding Class A Ordinary Shares as a result of any reclassification, recapitalization, stock split or combination, exchange or readjustment of shares, or any stock dividend, the VWAP shall be equitably adjusted to reflect such change.
Warrants” refers to the public warrants and the private placement warrants, collectively.
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Warrant Agreement” refers to the EJFA Warrant Agreement, as assigned, assumed and amended by the Assignment, Assumption and Amendment Agreement.
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CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS; MARKET, RANKING AND OTHER INDUSTRY DATA
This prospectus contains forward-looking statements that involve substantial risks and uncertainties. The Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, or the PSLRA, provides safe harbor protections for forward-looking statements in order to encourage companies to provide prospective information about their business. Forward-looking statements include, without limitation, our expectations concerning the outlook for our business, productivity, plans and goals for future operational improvements and capital investments, operational performance, future market conditions or economic performance and developments in the capital and credit markets and expected future financial performance, as well as any information concerning possible or assumed future results of operations.
Pagaya desires to take advantage of the safe harbor provisions of the PSLRA and is including this cautionary statement in connection with this safe harbor legislation. All statements other than statements of historical facts contained in this prospectus, including statements regarding our future financial position, business strategy and plans and objectives of management for future operations, are forward-looking statements. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by words such as “estimate,” “plan,” “project,” “forecast,” “intend,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “believe,” “seek,” “strategy,” “future,” “opportunity,” “may,” “target,” “should,” “will,” “would,” “will be,” “will continue,” “will likely result,” or similar expressions that predict or indicate future events or trends or that are not statements of historical matters.
Forward-looking statements involve a number of risks, uncertainties and assumptions, and actual results or events may differ materially from those implied in those statements. Important factors that could cause such differences include, but are not limited to:
the ability to implement business plans and other expectations;
the impact of the continuation of or changes in the short-term and long-term interest rate environment;
difficult market or political conditions in which we compete;
the availability and cost of capital for our network;
our ability to develop and maintain a diverse and robust funding network;
our uncertain future prospects and rate of growth due to our relatively limited operating history;
the performance of our AI technology to meet return expectations of asset investors in Financing Vehicles;
our ability to improve, operate and implement our AI technology, including as we expand into new asset classes;
competition in attracting and onboarding new Partners and raising capital from asset investors through Financing Vehicles given the current limited number of Partners that account for a substantial portion of the total number of the financial products facilitated with the assistance of our AI technology;
anticipated benefits and savings from our recently announced reduction in workforce;
potential difficulties in retaining our current management team and other key employees and independent contractors, including highly-skilled technical experts;
our estimates of our future financial performance;
changes in the political, legal and regulatory framework for AI technology, machine learning; financial institutions and consumer protection;
the impact of health epidemics, including the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic;
our ability to realize the potential benefits of past or future acquisitions;
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conditions related to our operations in Israel;
risks related to data, security and privacy;
changes to accounting principles and guidelines;
our ability to develop and maintain effective internal controls;
potential litigation or conflicts relating to the Company’s merger with EJF Acquisition Corporation;
the ability to maintain the listing of our securities on Nasdaq;
the price of our securities has been and may continue to be volatile;
unexpected costs or expenses;
future issuances, sales or resales of our Class A Ordinary Shares;
an active public trading market for our Class A Ordinary Shares may not be sustained; and
the other matters described in the section titled “Risk Factors.”
We caution you not to rely on forward-looking statements, which reflect current beliefs and are based on information currently available as of the date a forward-looking statement is made. Forward-looking statements set forth herein speak only as of the date of this prospectus. We undertake no obligation to revise forward-looking statements to reflect future events, changes in circumstances or changes in beliefs except to the extent required by law. In the event that any forward-looking statement is updated, no inference should be made that we will make additional updates with respect to that statement, related matters, or any other forward-looking statements except to the extent required by law. Any corrections or revisions and other important assumptions and factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from forward-looking statements, including discussions of significant risk factors, may appear in our public filings with the SEC, which are or will be (as appropriate) accessible at www.sec.gov, and which you are advised to consult. For additional information, please see the section titled “Where You Can Find More Information.
Market, ranking and industry data used throughout this prospectus, including statements regarding market size and technology adoption rates, is based on the good faith estimates of our management, which in turn are based upon our management’s review of internal surveys, independent industry surveys and publications and other third-party research and publicly available information. These data involve a number of assumptions and limitations, and you are cautioned not to give undue weight to such estimates. While we are not aware of any misstatements regarding the industry data presented herein, its estimates involve risks and uncertainties and are subject to change based on various factors, including those discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” of this prospectus.
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SUMMARY OF THE PROSPECTUS
This summary highlights selected information from this prospectus and does not contain all of the information that is important to you. You should carefully read this entire prospectus and the other documents referred to in this prospectus, including the information presented under the sections titled “Risk Factors,” “Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward Looking Statements,” “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” and the consolidated financial statements and the related notes thereto included elsewhere in this prospectus, before making an investment decision. The definition of some of the terms used in this prospectus are set forth under the section “Selected Definitions.” For additional information, see the section of this prospectus entitled “Where You Can Find More Information.” Each item in this summary refers to the page of this prospectus on which that subject is discussed in more detail.
Business Summary
Company Overview
Pagaya makes life-changing financial products and services available to more people.
We have built, and we are continuing to scale, a leading AI and data network for the benefit of financial services and other service providers, their customers, and investors. Services providers integrated in our network, which we refer to as our ‘‘Partners,’’ range from high-growth financial technology companies to incumbent banks and financial institutions. Partners benefit from our network to extend financial products to their customers, in turn helping those customers fulfill their financial needs. These assets originated by Partners with the assistance of Pagaya’s AI technology are eligible to be acquired by (i) funds managed or advised by Pagaya or one of its affiliates, (ii) securitization vehicles sponsored or administered by Pagaya or one of its affiliates and (iii) other similar vehicles (collectively, the “Financing Vehicles”).
In recent years, investments in digitization have improved the front-end delivery of financial products, upgrading customer experience and convenience. Notwithstanding these advances, we believe underlying approaches to the determination of creditworthiness for financial products are often outdated and overly manual. In our experience, providers of financial services tend to utilize a limited number of factors to make decisions, operate with siloed technology infrastructure and have data limited to their own experience. As a result, we believe financial services providers approve a smaller proportion of their application volume than is possible with the benefit of modern technology, such as our AI technology and data network.
At our core, we are a technology company that deploys sophisticated data science, machine learning and AI technology to drive better results across the financial ecosystem. We believe our solution drives a “win-win-win” for Partners, their customers and potential customers, and investors. First, by utilizing our network, Partners receive direct benefits from our network by approving a greater share of customer applications, which we believe drives superior revenue growth, enhanced brand affinity, opportunities to promote other financial products and decreased unit-level customer acquisition costs. Partners realize these benefits with limited incremental risk or funding requirements. Second, Partners’ customers benefit from enhanced and more convenient access to financial products. Third, investors benefit through gaining exposure to these assets originated by Partners with the assistance of our AI technology and acquired by the Financing Vehicles through our network.
EJFA Merger
On the EJFA Closing Date, Pagaya consummated its previously announced business combination pursuant to the EJFA Merger Agreement, by and among EJFA, Pagaya and EJFA Merger Sub. As contemplated by the EJFA Merger Agreement, EJFA Merger Sub merged with and into EJFA, with EJFA surviving the EJFA Merger as a wholly-owned subsidiary of Pagaya. As a result of the EJFA Merger, and upon consummation of the EJFA Merger and the other transactions contemplated by the EJFA Merger Agreement, the shareholders of EJFA became shareholders of Pagaya.
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On the EJFA Closing Date, the following transactions occurred pursuant to the terms of the EJFA Merger Agreement:
(i) immediately prior to the effective time of the EJFA Merger (the “Effective Time”), each Pagaya Preferred Share was converted into ordinary shares of Pagaya, prior to the Capital Restructuring (defined hereunder) (the “Pagaya Ordinary Shares”) in accordance with Pagaya’s organizational documents, (ii) immediately following the conversion of the outstanding Class A preferred shares, Class A-1 preferred shares, Class B preferred shares, Class C preferred shares, Class D preferred shares and Class E preferred shares of Pagaya (collectively the “Pagaya Preferred Shares”) into Pagaya Ordinary Shares in accordance with the EJFA Merger Agreement (the “Preferred Share Conversion”) but prior to the Effective Time, Pagaya adopted Articles of Association (the “Pagaya Articles”), (iii) immediately following such adoption but prior to the Effective Time, Pagaya effected a share split, with the three founders of Pagaya (including any trusts the beneficiary of which is a founder of Pagaya and to the extent that a founder of Pagaya has the right to vote the shares held by such trust) (the “Founders”) each receiving Class B Ordinary Shares, which carry voting rights in the form of 10 votes per share of Pagaya, and the other shareholders of Pagaya receiving Class A Ordinary Shares, which are economically equivalent to the Class B Ordinary Shares and carry voting rights in the form of one vote per share of Pagaya, in accordance with Pagaya’s organizational documents (the “Share Split”);
at the Effective Time, EJFA Merger Sub merged with and into EJFA, with EJFA continuing as the surviving company after the EJFA Merger (the “Surviving Company”), and, as a result of the EJFA Merger, the Surviving Company became a direct, wholly-owned subsidiary of Pagaya; and
at the Effective Time, (i) each class B ordinary share, par value $0.0001 per share of EJFA (an “EJFA Class B Ordinary Share”), issued and outstanding immediately prior to the Effective Time other than all shares of EJFA held by EJFA, EJFA Merger Sub or Pagaya or any of its subsidiaries at that time, was no longer outstanding and was converted into the right of the holder thereof to receive one Class A Ordinary Share after giving effect to the reclassification of each Pagaya Ordinary Share as set forth in the EJFA Merger Agreement (the “Reclassification”), the Preferred Share Conversion and the Stock Split (defined hereunder) (together, the “Capital Restructuring”), (ii) each class A ordinary share, par value $0.0001 per share, of EJFA (an “EJFA Class A Ordinary Share”) issued and outstanding immediately prior to the Effective Time other than all shares of EJFA held by EJFA, EJFA Merger Sub or Pagaya or any of its subsidiaries at that time was no longer outstanding and was converted into the right of the holder thereof to receive one Class A Ordinary Share after giving effect to the Capital Restructuring, and (iii) each issued and outstanding EJFA Warrant was automatically and irrevocably assumed by Pagaya and converted into a warrant exercisable for Pagaya Class A Ordinary Share (“Pagaya Warrant”).
On the EJFA Closing Date, immediately following the EJFA Merger, the Surviving Company merged with and into Merger Sub II, with Merger Sub II continuing as the surviving company after the Second Merger.
On September 15, 2021, concurrently with the execution of the EJFA Merger Agreement, Pagaya and EJF Debt Opportunities Master Fund, LP, a Delaware limited liability company, an affiliate of EJFA (the “EJF Investor”) entered into a certain Subscription Agreement, dated as of September 15, 2021, providing for the purchase by the EJF Investor at the EJFA Closing of up to 20 million Class A Ordinary Shares at a price per share of $10.00, for an aggregate purchase price of up to $200 million (the “EJF Subscription Agreement”), and Pagaya subsequently entered into other certain subscription agreements (the “Subscription Agreements”) with certain other investors (the “PIPE Investors”). Pursuant to the Subscription Agreements, the investors agreed to purchase, and Pagaya agreed to sell to the investors, an aggregate of 35 million Class A Ordinary Shares, at a purchase price of $10.00 per share and an aggregate purchase price of $350 million, on the terms and subject to the conditions set forth in the Subscription Agreements. The Subscription Agreements contained customary representations and warranties of Pagaya, on the one hand, and the investors, on the other hand, and customary conditions to closing, including the consummation of the transactions contemplated by the EJFA Merger Agreement. The investment by the EJF Investor and by those certain other PIPE Investors pursuant to the Subscription Agreements (the “PIPE Investment”) closed immediately prior to the Effective Time.
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On June 23, 2022, our Class A Ordinary Shares and public warrants began trading on Nasdaq under the symbols “PGY” and “PGYWW,” respectively.
Acquisition of Darwin Homes, Inc.
On January 5, 2023 (the “Darwin Closing Date”), we consummated a business combination pursuant to that certain Agreement and Plan of Merger (the “Darwin Merger Agreement”), dated as of November 15, 2022, by and among Pagaya, Darwin Homes, Inc., a Delaware corporation (“Darwin”), DH Merger Sub Inc., a Delaware corporation and a direct, wholly owned subsidiary of Pagaya (“Darwin Merger Sub”), and Shareholder Representative Services LLC, a Colorado limited liability company, acting solely in its capacity as the representative, agent and attorney-in-fact of the stockholders of Darwin. On the Darwin Closing Date, the following transactions occurred pursuant to the terms and conditions of the Darwin Merger Agreement:
at the effective time of the merger (the “Darwin Effective Time”), Darwin Merger Sub merged with and into Darwin (the “Darwin Merger”), with Darwin continuing as the surviving company after the Darwin Merger (the “Darwin Surviving Company”), and, as a result of the Darwin Merger, the Darwin Surviving Company became a direct, wholly owned subsidiary of Pagaya; and
at the Darwin Effective Time, preferred shares of Darwin’s capital stock (“Darwin Shares”) issued and outstanding prior to the Darwin Effective Time (other than any Darwin Shares that were (i) subject to options or warrants, (ii) held in Darwin’s treasury or owned by Pagaya, Darwin Merger Sub or Darwin immediately prior to the Darwin Effective Time or (iii) held by equityholders of Darwin (the “Darwin Equityholders”) who perfected and did not withdraw a demand for appraisal rights pursuant to the applicable provisions of Delaware General Corporation Law), were cancelled and automatically converted into the right to receive Pagaya’s Class A Ordinary Shares, such that, following the Darwin Effective Time, Pagaya issued approximately 18.2 million Class A Ordinary Shares and may issue an additional approximately 180,000 Class A Ordinary Shares to the Darwin Equityholders.
In connection with the acquisition of Darwin, we entered into a registration rights agreement with the Darwin Equityholders whereby we agreed to use our commercially reasonable efforts to file a registration statement to cover the resale of the Class A Ordinary Shares issued to Darwin Equityholders, and to use our commercially reasonable efforts to have such registration statement declared effective as soon as is reasonably practicable after the filing thereof.
Reduction in Workforce
On January 18, 2023, we announced a reduction in workforce of approximately 20% of employees across our Israel and U.S. offices, as compared to our headcount as of December 31, 2022. This reduction in workforce is expected to enable us to streamline our operations in the current market environment to achieve our near-to-medium term growth priorities. The affected employees were notified on or before January 17, 2023, and all actions associated with the reduction were expected to be substantially complete in the first quarter of 2023, subject to local law.
We expect that this reduction in workforce will result in approximately $30 million of annualized cost savings. We also expect to incur a severance-related charge of approximately $4 million, consisting primarily of one-time separation payments, the majority of which will be made in the first quarter of 2023. The charges and timing of such charges described above are preliminary estimates based on our current expectations and are subject to a number of assumptions and risks, and actual results may differ materially from such estimates. We may also incur other charges, costs or cash expenditures not currently contemplated due to events that may occur as a result of, or associated with, the reduction in workforce. See “Risk Factors—Our recent reduction in workforce, announced on January 18, 2023, may not result in anticipated savings or operational efficiencies, could result in total costs and expenses that are greater than expected, and could disrupt our business.
Amended Letter Agreement
Pursuant to the Letter Agreement, dated June 1, 2020, the Company agreed to provide Radiance Star Pte. Ltd. (“Radiance”), an affiliate of GIC Private Limited, the right to purchase up to a certain amount of qualified securities
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in certain offerings by the Company and to provide Radiance with notice of any fund offerings or securitization offerings. On March 19, 2023, the Company and Radiance agreed to extend the term of the Letter Agreement by three years (the “Amended Letter Agreement”) to June 1, 2028 on the same terms and amount, including the issuance of 2,640,000 warrants to purchase Class A Ordinary shares at an exercise price of $0.01 that vest annually if certain investment thresholds by Radiance are met. There were no other material changes to the existing terms of the Letter Agreement.
Series A Preferred Share Purchase Agreement
On April 14, 2023 the Company entered into a Preferred Share Purchase Agreement (the “Purchase Agreement”) with Oak HC/FT Partners V, L.P., Oak HC/FT Partners V-A, L.P. and Oak HC/FT Partners V-B, L.P (together, the “Investor”) pursuant to which the Company agreed, subject to Shareholder Approval (as defined below), to issue and sell to the Investor an aggregate of 60,000,000 Series A Preferred Shares, no par value (the “Series A Preferred Shares”), at a price of $1.25 per share (subject to applicable adjustment as provided in the A&R Articles), for an aggregate purchase price of $75 million (the “Transaction”). Subject to shareholder approval of certain Amended and Restated Articles of Association of the Company (the “A&R Articles”), the Series A Preferred Shares will have the rights and preferences set forth in the A&R Articles. Pursuant to the A&R Articles, there are 80,000,000 authorized Series A Preferred Shares and the Company may issue and sell the balance of the authorized but unissued Series A Preferred Shares from time to time in the future.
The Investor is affiliated with Oak HC/FT Partners II, L.P. (“Oak”), an entity that holds approximately 12% of the Class A Ordinary Shares, no par value, of the Company, and approximately 3% of the voting power of the Company as of the date of the Purchase Agreement. Mr. Dan Petrozzo, a member of the Pagaya Board and the Audit Committee of the Pagaya Board, is a partner at Oak. Following their review of applicable considerations pursuant to the Company’s policies and applicable Israeli law, the disinterested members of the Audit Committee and of the Pagaya Board approved the Purchase Agreement and the exhibits, schedules and ancillary documents thereto, and the Pagaya Board recommended to the shareholders of the Company to adopt the A&R Articles and approve the Transaction and the matters contemplated thereby.
Pursuant to the Purchase Agreement, the Company agreed to use commercially reasonable efforts to hold a meeting of shareholders (the “Shareholder Meeting”) as promptly as reasonably practicable to obtain shareholder approval (the “Shareholder Approval”) of (i) the adoption of the A&R Articles as required by applicable Israeli law and (ii) the Transaction and the matters contemplated thereby. The closing of the Transaction is subject to, among other things, the Company obtaining the Shareholder Approval.
In connection with the execution of the Purchase Agreement, certain shareholders of the Company entered into a voting agreement (the “Voting Agreement”) with the Company, pursuant to which such shareholders agreed to vote at a meeting of the shareholders (i) in favor of (a) the adoption of the A&R Articles and (b) any other matter reasonably necessary to the consummation of the Transaction and considered and voted upon by the shareholders of the Company, and (ii) against any action, proposal, transaction or agreement that could reasonably be expected to impede, interfere with, delay, discourage, adversely affect or inhibit the timely consummation of the Transaction.
Subject to approval by the shareholders of the A&R Articles, each Series A Preferred Share will have one vote for each Class A Ordinary Share into which the Preferred Share could be converted as of the applicable record date set for the vote on any matter. The Series A Preferred Shares will vote together with the Class A Ordinary Shares and the Class B Ordinary Shares, no par value, of the Company as a single class and not as a separate class in all shareholder meetings, except as required by law or by the A&R Articles.
Each Series A Preferred Share will be convertible into one Class A Ordinary Share, at the option of the holder thereof at any time, upon written notice to the Company and the Company’s transfer agent. In addition, at any time on or after the sixth anniversary of the issuance of the Series A Preferred Shares, and if the Series A Preferred Shares have not already been converted in accordance with the applicable provisions in the A&R Articles, if and only if so elected by the Company, all Series A Preferred Shares that remain outstanding will automatically convert, with each Series A Preferred Share then outstanding converting into the following number of Class A Ordinary Shares, based on the volume weighted average trading price of the Class A Ordinary Shares for the thirty trading days immediately preceding the date of the Company’s written notice to the holders of the Preferred Shares of its election to so automatically convert all then-outstanding Preferred Shares (“30-Day VWAP Average”) pursuant to the applicable terms specified in the A&R Articles. All shareholders of record of Series A Preferred Shares shall be
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sent written notice of the Company’s election to require conversion of the Series A Preferred Shares and the time of mandatory conversion, on or before the time of the designated mandatory conversion, together with all information necessary to allow the conversion. Such conversion shall occur on the fifth trading day after such notice is given.
In addition, at any time if, based on the 30-Day VWAP Average, the value of a Series A Preferred Share, on an as-converted basis, represents a return of the Original Issue Price (as defined in the A&R Articles) equal to a minimum multiple of the Original Issue Price (“MOIP”) as specified in the A&R Articles, the Company shall have the right, but not the obligation, within five trading days thereafter, to notify the holders of the then-outstanding Series A Preferred Shares of the Company’s election to automatically convert each Series A Preferred Share then outstanding into one Class A Ordinary Share without any further action by the holder thereof on the tenth trading day following the achievement of the MOIP.
Any modification to the rights, preferences or privileges of the Series A Preferred Shares will require the approval of a majority of the Series A Preferred Shares represented and voted, in person or by proxy, in a class meeting of the then-outstanding Series A Preferred Shares convened for such purpose.
The Series A Preferred Shares will have preference over the Ordinary Shares with respect to distribution of assets or available proceeds, as applicable (“Distributable Assets”), in the event of any liquidation, merger, capital stock exchange, reorganization, sale of all or substantially all assets or other similar transaction involving the Company upon the consummation of which holders of shares would be entitled to exchange their shares for cash, securities or other property (each, a “Liquidation Event”). Upon a Liquidation Event, the holders of Series A Preferred Shares then outstanding will be entitled to receive, before any payment is made to holders of Ordinary Shares and after payments to satisfy and discharge indebtedness, an amount per share held by them (the “Preference Amount”) equal to the greatest of:
(i) the sum of the Original Issue Price of such share plus an amount equal to 3.0% of the Original Issue Price for each full semiannual period for which such Preferred Share has been outstanding (without compounding);
(ii) the amount such holder would actually have received for each Series A Preferred Share if such Series A Preferred Share had been converted into Class A Ordinary Shares immediately prior to such Liquidation Event; or
(iii) two times the Original Issue Price.
For purposes of clause (ii), the computation will assume that (a) all Series A Preferred Shares whose conversion or assumed conversion into Class A Ordinary Shares would result in a greater distribution amount will be considered as if they have been so converted (without being required to actually convert), and (b) all other Series A Preferred Shares (i.e. whose conversion or assumed conversion would not have yielded such greater amount) will be considered as if they received the distribution amount that assumes no such conversion. In the event that the Distributable Assets are insufficient to pay in full the Preference Amount in respect of each Preferred Share then outstanding, all Distributable Assets shall be distributed on a pari passu basis among the holders of the Preferred Shares in proportion to the respective full Preference Amount otherwise payable to such holders at that time under the A&R Articles. After payment in full of the Preference Amount in respect of all Preferred Shares then outstanding, in accordance with A&R Articles, the remaining Distributable Assets, if any, shall be distributed among the holders of Ordinary Shares only (i.e. excluding any Class A Ordinary Shares deemed issued upon the conversion of any Series A Preferred Shares then outstanding that participated in the distribution pursuant to the A&R Articles, pro rata, based on the number of Class A Ordinary Shares (on an as-converted basis) held by each such holder.
The foregoing does not purport to be a complete description of the rights and obligations of the parties to the Purchase Agreement and is qualified in its entirety by reference to the Purchase Agreement, a copy of which is attached as Exhibit 4.7 to this filing. The foregoing description of the terms pertaining to the Series A Preferred Shares is not complete and is qualified in its entirety by reference to the A&R Articles, a copy of which is attached as an exhibit to the Purchase Agreement. The foregoing description of the Voting Agreement is not complete and is qualified in its entirety by reference to the Voting Agreement, a copy of which is attached as Exhibit 4.8 to this filing.
The Committed Equity Financing
On August 17, 2022, we entered into an ordinary shares purchase agreement (“Equity Financing Purchase Agreement”) and a registration rights agreement (the “Equity Financing Registration Rights Agreement”) with B.
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Riley Principal Capital II, LLC (“B. Riley Principal Capital II”). Pursuant to the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement, we have the right to sell to B. Riley Principal Capital II up to $300,000,000 of our Class A Ordinary Shares, subject to certain limitations and conditions set forth in the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement, from time to time during the term of the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement. Sales of our Class A Ordinary Shares pursuant to the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement, and the timing of any sales, are solely at our option, and we are under no obligation to sell any securities to B. Riley Principal Capital II under the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement. In accordance with our obligations under the Equity Financing Registration Rights Agreement, we have filed the registration statement that includes this prospectus with the SEC to register under the Securities the resale by B. Riley Principal Capital II of up to 40,139,607 Class A Ordinary Shares, including (i) up to 40,000,000 Class A Ordinary Shares that we may elect, in our sole discretion, to issue and sell to B. Riley Principal Capital II, from time to time from and after the Commencement Date (defined below) under the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement, and (ii) 139,607 Class A Ordinary Shares that we issued and may issue to B. Riley Principal Capital II if certain conditions are met pursuant to the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement (the “Commitment Shares”) in consideration for its commitment to purchase our Class A Ordinary Shares that we may, in our sole discretion, direct it to make from time to time after the date of this prospectus pursuant to the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement, of which 46,536 Commitment Shares were issued to B. Riley Principal Capital II on August 17, 2022 (the “Initial Commitment Shares”) and 93,071 Commitment Shares may be issued to the B. Riley Principal Capital II if certain conditions are met pursuant to the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement (the “Additional Commitment Shares”).
Upon the initial satisfaction of the conditions to B. Riley Principal Capital II’s purchase obligations set forth in the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement (the “Commencement”), including that the registration statement that includes this prospectus be declared effective by the SEC, we will have the right, but not the obligation, from time to time at our sole discretion over the 24-month period beginning on the date the Commencement occurs (the “Commencement Date”), to direct B. Riley Principal Capital II to purchase a specified number of our Class A Ordinary Shares (each, a “Purchase”), not to exceed the lesser of (such lesser number of shares, the “Purchase Maximum Amount”): (i) 10,000,000 of our Class A Ordinary Shares and (ii) 20.0% of the total aggregate number (or volume) of our Class A Ordinary Shares traded on Nasdaq during the applicable Purchase Valuation Period (as defined below) for such Purchase (such specified number of shares to be purchased by the Selling Securityholder in such Purchase, adjusted to the extent necessary to give effect to the applicable Purchase Maximum Amount and certain additional limitations set forth in the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement, the “Purchase Share Amount”), by timely delivering written notice to B. Riley Principal Capital II (each, a “Purchase Notice”) prior to 9:00 a.m., New York City time, on any trading day (each, a “Purchase Date”), so long as (a) the closing sale price of our Class A Ordinary Shares on Nasdaq on the trading day immediately prior to such Purchase Date is not less than $1.00, subject to adjustment as set forth in the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement (such price, as may be adjusted from time to time in accordance with the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement, the “Threshold Price”), and (b) all of our Class A Ordinary Shares subject to all prior purchases effected by us under the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement have been received by B. Riley Principal Capital II prior to the time we deliver such Purchase Notice to B. Riley Principal Capital II.
The per share purchase price that B. Riley Principal Capital II is required to pay for our Class A Ordinary Shares in a Purchase effected by us pursuant to the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement, if any, will be determined by reference to the volume weighted average price of our Class A Ordinary Shares (the “VWAP”), calculated in accordance with the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement, for the period (the “Purchase Valuation Period”) beginning at the official open (or “commencement”) of the regular trading session on Nasdaq on the applicable Purchase Date for such Purchase, and ending at the earliest to occur of (i) 3:59 p.m., New York City time, on such Purchase Date or such earlier time publicly announced by the trading market as the official close of the regular trading session on such Purchase Date, (ii) such time that the total aggregate number (or volume) of our Class A Ordinary Shares traded on Nasdaq during such Purchase Valuation Period (calculated in accordance with the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement) reaches the applicable share volume maximum amount for such Purchase (the “Purchase Share Volume Maximum”), calculated by dividing (a) the applicable Purchase Share Amount for such Purchase by (b) 0.20, and (iii) to the extent that the Company elects in the applicable Purchase Notice that the Purchase Valuation Period will also be determined by the Minimum Price Threshold (as defined below), such time that the trading price of our Class A Ordinary Shares on Nasdaq during such Purchase Valuation Period (calculated in accordance with the Purchase Agreement) falls below the applicable minimum price threshold for such Purchase
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specified by us in the Purchase Notice for such Purchase, or if we do not specify a minimum price threshold in such Purchase Notice, a price equal to 75.0% of the closing sale price of our Class A Ordinary Shares on the trading day immediately prior to the applicable Purchase Date for such Purchase (the “Minimum Price Threshold”), less a fixed 3.0% discount to the VWAP for such Purchase Valuation Period.
In the event that we elect in the applicable Purchase Notice that the Purchase Valuation Period will also be determined by the Minimum Price Threshold, for purposes of calculating the volume of our Class A Ordinary Shares traded during a Purchase Valuation Period, as well as the VWAP for a Purchase Valuation Period, the following transactions, to the extent they occur during such Purchase Valuation Period, are excluded: (x) the opening or first purchase of the Class A Ordinary Shares at or following the official open of the regular trading session on Nasdaq on the applicable Purchase Date for such Purchase and (y) the last or closing sale of the Class A Ordinary Shares at or prior to the official close of the regular trading session on Nasdaq on the applicable Purchase Date for such Purchase.
In the event that we do not elect in the applicable Purchase Notice that the Purchase Valuation Period will also be determined by the Minimum Price Threshold, the calculation of the volume of our Class A Ordinary Shares traded during a Purchase Valuation Period and the VWAP for a Purchase Valuation Period will exclude the following transactions. To the extent they occur during such Purchase Valuation Period: (x) the opening or first purchase of the Class A Ordinary Shares at or following the official open of the regular trading session on Nasdaq on the applicable Purchase Date for such Purchase, (y) the last or closing sale of the Class A Ordinary Shares at or prior to the official close of the regular trading session on Nasdaq on the applicable Purchase Date for such Purchase, and (z) all trades of the Class A Ordinary on Nasdaq during such Purchase Valuation Period at a price below the applicable Minimum Price Threshold for such Purchase.
In addition to the regular Purchases described above, after the Commencement, we will also have the right, but not the obligation, subject to the continued satisfaction of the conditions set forth in the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement, to direct B. Riley Principal Capital II to purchase, on any trading day, including the same Purchase Date on which a regular Purchase is effected (if any, although we are not required to effect an earlier regular Purchase on such trading day), a specified number of our Class A Ordinary Shares (each, an “Intraday Purchase”), not to exceed the lesser of (such lesser number of shares, the “Intraday Purchase Maximum Amount”): (i) 10,000,000 of our Class A Ordinary Shares and (ii) 20.0% of the total aggregate volume of our Class A Ordinary Shares traded on Nasdaq during the applicable “Intraday Purchase Valuation Period” (determined in the same manner as for a regular Purchase) for such Intraday Purchase (such specified number of shares, adjusted to the extent necessary to give effect to the applicable Intraday Purchase Maximum Amount, the “Intraday Purchase Share Amount”), by the delivery to B. Riley Principal Capital II of an irrevocable written purchase notice, after 10:00 a.m., New York City time (and after the Purchase Valuation Period for any prior regular Purchase (if any) and the Intraday Purchase Valuation Period for the most recent prior Intraday Purchase effected on the same Purchase Date (if any) have ended), and prior to 3:30 p.m., New York City time, on such Purchase Date (each, an “Intraday Purchase Notice”), so long as (i) the closing sale price of our Class A Ordinary Shares on the trading day immediately prior to such Purchase Date is not less than the Threshold Price and (ii) all of our Class A Ordinary Shares subject to all prior Purchases and all prior Intraday Purchases by B. Riley Principal Capital II under the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement have been received by B. Riley Principal Capital II prior to the time we deliver such Intraday Purchase Notice to B. Riley Principal Capital II.
The per share purchase price for our Class A Ordinary Shares that we elect to sell to B. Riley Principal Capital II in an Intraday Purchase pursuant to the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement, if any, will be calculated in the same manner as in the case of a regular Purchase (including the same fixed percentage discounts to the applicable VWAP as in the case of a regular Purchase, as described above), provided that the VWAP for each Intraday Purchase effected on a Purchase Date will be calculated over different periods during the regular trading session on Nasdaq on such Purchase Date, each of which will commence and end at different times on such Purchase Date.
There is no upper limit on the price per share that B. Riley Principal Capital II could be obligated to pay for our Class A Ordinary Shares we may elect to sell to it in any Purchase or any Intraday Purchase under the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement. In the case of Purchases and Intraday Purchases effected by us under the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement, if any, all share and dollar amounts used in determining the purchase price per share
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of our Class A Ordinary Shares to be purchased by B. Riley Principal Capital II in a Purchase or an Intraday Purchase (as applicable), or in determining the applicable maximum purchase share amounts or applicable volume or price threshold amounts in connection with any such Purchase or Intraday Purchase (as applicable), in each case, will be equitably adjusted for any reorganization, recapitalization, non-cash dividend, share split, reverse share split or other similar transaction occurring during any period used to calculate such per share purchase price, maximum purchase share amounts or applicable volume or price threshold amounts.
From and after Commencement, we will control the timing and amount of any sales of our Class A Ordinary Shares to B. Riley Principal Capital II. Actual sales of our Class A Ordinary Shares to B. Riley Principal Capital II under the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement will depend on a variety of factors to be determined by us from time to time, including, among other things, market conditions, the trading price of our Class A Ordinary Shares and determinations by us as to the appropriate sources of funding for our business and operations.
We may not issue or sell any share of our Class A Ordinary Shares to B. Riley Principal Capital II under the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement which, when aggregated with all other Class A Ordinary Shares then beneficially owned by B. Riley Principal Capital II and its affiliates (as calculated pursuant to Section 13(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), and Rule 13d-3 thereunder), would result in B. Riley Principal Capital II beneficially owning more than 4.99% of the outstanding Class A Ordinary Shares (the “Beneficial Ownership Limitation”).
The net proceeds to us from sales that we elect to make to B. Riley Principal Capital II under the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement, if any, will depend on the frequency and prices at which we sell our Class A Ordinary Shares to B. Riley Principal Capital II. We expect that any proceeds received by us from such sales to B. Riley Principal Capital II will be used for working capital and general corporate purposes.
There are no restrictions on future financings, rights of first refusal, participation rights, penalties or liquidated damages in the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement or Equity Financing Registration Rights Agreement, other than a prohibition (with certain limited exceptions) on entering into specified “Variable Rate Transactions” (as such term is defined in the Purchase Agreement) during the term of the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement. Such transactions include, among others, the issuance of convertible securities with a conversion or exercise price that is based upon or varies with the trading price of our Class A Ordinary Shares after the date of issuance, or our effecting or entering into an agreement to effect an “equity line of credit” or other substantially similar continuous offering with a third party, in which we may offer, issue or sell our Class A Ordinary Shares or any securities exercisable, exchangeable or convertible into our Class A Ordinary Shares at a future determined price. See “Plan of Distribution (Conflict of Interest)” for more information regarding Variable Rate Transactions.
B. Riley Principal Capital II has agreed that none of B. Riley Principal Capital II, its sole member or any entity managed or controlled by B. Riley Principal Capital II or its sole member, or any of their respective officers, will engage in or effect, directly or indirectly, for its own account or for the account of any other of such persons or entities, any short sales of our Class A Ordinary Shares or hedging transaction that establishes a net short position in our Class A Ordinary Shares during the term of the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement.
The Equity Financing Purchase Agreement will automatically terminate on the earliest to occur of (i) the first day of the month following the 24-month anniversary of the Commencement Date, (ii) the date on which the Selling Securityholder shall have purchased from us under the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement our Class A Ordinary Shares for an aggregate gross purchase price of $300,000,000, (iii) the date on which our Class A Ordinary Shares shall have failed to be listed or quoted on Nasdaq or another U.S. national securities exchange identified as an “eligible market” in the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement, (iv) the 30th trading day after the date on which a voluntary or involuntary bankruptcy proceeding involving our company has been commenced that is not discharged or dismissed prior to such trading day, and (v) the date on which a bankruptcy custodian is appointed for all or substantially all of our property or we make a general assignment for the benefit of creditors.
We have the right to terminate the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement at any time after Commencement, at no cost or penalty, upon two trading days’ prior written notice to B. Riley Principal Capital II. We and B. Riley Principal Capital II may also agree to terminate the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement by mutual written
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consent, provided that no termination of the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement will be effective during the pendency of any Purchase or any Intraday Purchase that has not then fully settled in accordance with the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement. Neither we nor B. Riley Principal Capital II may assign or transfer our respective rights and obligations under the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement or the Equity Financing Registration Rights Agreement, and no provision of the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement or the Equity Financing Registration Rights Agreement may be modified or waived by us or B. Riley Principal Capital II.
As consideration for B. Riley Principal Capital II’s commitment to purchase our Class A Ordinary Shares at our direction upon the terms and subject to the conditions set forth in the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement, upon execution of the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement, we issued 46,536 Initial Commitment Shares to B. Riley Principal Capital II. In addition, (i) upon our receipt of total aggregate gross cash proceeds equal to $100,000,000 from B. Riley Principal Capital II under the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement (if any), we will issue 46,536 additional Class A Ordinary Shares to B. Riley Principal.
Capital II as Additional Commitment Shares, and (ii) upon our receipt of total aggregate gross cash proceeds equal to $200,000,000 from B. Riley Principal Capital II under the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement (if any), we will issue an additional 46,535 Class A Ordinary Shares to B. Riley Principal Capital II as Additional Commitment Shares, totaling 93,071 Additional Commitment Shares (in addition to the 46,536 Initial Commitment Shares we issued to the Selling Securityholder upon execution of the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement). Furthermore, we have agreed to reimburse B. Riley Principal Capital II for the reasonable legal fees and disbursements of B. Riley Principal Capital II’s legal counsel in an amount not to exceed (i) $100,000 upon our execution of the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement and Equity Financing Registration Rights Agreement and (ii) $7,500 per fiscal quarter, in each case in connection with the transactions contemplated by the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement and the Equity Financing Registration Rights Agreement.
The Equity Financing Purchase Agreement and the Equity Financing Registration Rights Agreement contain customary representations, warranties, conditions and indemnification obligations of the parties. Copies of the agreements have been filed as exhibits to the registration statement that includes this prospectus and are available electronically on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov.
We do not know what the purchase price for our Class A Ordinary Shares will be and therefore cannot be certain as to the number of shares we might issue to B. Riley Principal Capital II under the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement after the Commencement Date. As of March 31, 2023, there were 704,103,132 Pagaya Ordinary Shares outstanding, including 529,168,740 Class A Ordinary Shares, of which 277,695,193 shares were held by non-affiliates of our company. The Equity Financing Purchase Agreement provides that we may sell up to a maximum of 40,139,607 Class A Ordinary Shares for an aggregate $300,000,000, which Class A Ordinary Shares are being registered under the Securities Act for resale by the Selling Securityholder under this prospectus and represent (i) the 46,536 Initial Commitment Shares that we issued to B. Riley Principal Capital II upon execution of the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement on August 17, 2022, (ii) up to 93,071 Additional Commitment Shares that we may issue to B. Riley Principal Capital II pursuant to the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement if certain conditions are met, and (iii) up to 40,000,000 of our Class A Ordinary Shares that may be issued to B. Riley Principal Capital II from and after the Commencement Date, if and when we elect to sell shares to B. Riley Principal Capital II under the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement. If all of the shares offered for resale by B. Riley Principal Capital II under this prospectus were issued and outstanding as of the date hereof, such shares would represent approximately 7% of outstanding Class A Ordinary Shares, approximately 5% of outstanding Pagaya Ordinary Shares, and approximately 12% of our public float, as of March 31, 2023.
The number of our Class A Ordinary Shares ultimately offered for resale by B. Riley Principal Capital II through this prospectus is dependent upon the number of Class A Ordinary Shares, if any, we elect to sell to B. Riley Principal Capital II under the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement from and after the Commencement Date. The issuance of our Class A Ordinary Shares to B. Riley Principal Capital II pursuant to the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement will not affect the rights or privileges of our existing shareholders, except that the economic and voting interests of each of our existing shareholders will be diluted. Although the number of Class A Ordinary Shares that our existing shareholders own will not decrease, the Class A Ordinary Shares owned by our existing shareholders will represent a smaller percentage of our total outstanding Class A Ordinary Shares after any such issuance.
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On August 17, 2022, we entered into the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement and the Equity Financing Registration Rights Agreement with B. Riley Principal Capital II. Pursuant to the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement, we have the right to sell to B. Riley Principal Capital II, up to $300 million of our Class A Ordinary Shares, subject to certain limitations and conditions set forth in the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement, from time to time during the 24-month term of the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement. Sales of our Class A Ordinary Shares pursuant to the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement, and the timing of any sales, are solely at our option, and we are under no obligation to sell any securities to B. Riley Principal Capital II under the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement.
The per share purchase price for the shares of Class A Ordinary Shares that we elect to sell to B. Riley Principal Capital II pursuant to the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement, if any, will be determined by reference to the VWAP as defined within the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement, less a fixed 3% discount the VWAP for such Purchase Valuation Period (as defined in the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement). We cannot issue to B. Riley Principal Capital II more than 40,139,607 shares of Class A Ordinary Shares, which number of shares is approximately 9% of outstanding Class A Ordinary Shares immediately prior to the execution of the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement.
The net proceeds under the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement to the Company will depend on the frequency and prices at which we sell shares of our stock to B. Riley Principal Capital II.
As consideration for B. Riley Principal Capital II’s commitment to purchase shares of Class A Ordinary Shares at our direction upon the terms and subject to the conditions set forth in the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement, upon execution of the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement, we issued 46,536 shares of Class A Ordinary Shares to B. Riley Principal Capital II. Expense of $1 million related to these shares was recognized within other income (loss), net in our consolidated statements of operations. As of December 31, 2022, the Company has not sold any Class A Ordinary Shares to B. Riley Principal Capital II under the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement.
The Equity Financing Purchase Agreement and the Equity Financing Registration Rights Agreement contain customary representations, warranties, conditions and indemnification obligations of the parties. The foregoing descriptions of the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement and the Equity Financing Registration Rights Agreement do not purport to be complete and are qualified in their entirety by the full text of such agreements, which are incorporated herein by reference to Exhibits 10.6 and 10.7, respectively, to this prospectus.
Emerging Growth Company Status
We qualify as an “emerging growth company,” as defined in Section 2(a) of the Securities Act, as modified by the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 (the “JOBS Act”). As such, we are eligible to take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not “emerging growth companies,” including, but not limited to, not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (the “ Sarbanes-Oxley Act”), reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements, and exemptions from the requirements of holding a non-binding advisory vote on executive compensation and shareholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. If some investors find our securities less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our securities and the prices of our securities may be more volatile.
Further, Section 102(b)(1) of the JOBS Act exempts emerging growth companies from being required to comply with new or revised financial accounting standards until private companies (that is, those that have not had a Securities Act registration statement declared effective or do not have a class of securities registered under the Exchange Act) are required to comply with the new or revised financial accounting standards. The JOBS Act provides that a company can elect to opt out of the extended transition period and comply with the requirements that apply to non-emerging growth companies but any such election to opt out is irrevocable. We have elected not to opt out of such extended transition period, which means that when a standard is issued or revised and it has different application dates for public or private companies, we, as an emerging growth company, can adopt the new or revised standard at the time private companies adopt the new or revised standard. This may make comparison of our
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financial statements with certain other public companies difficult or impossible because of the potential differences in accounting standards used.
We will remain an emerging growth company until the earlier of: (i) the last day of the fiscal year (a) following the fifth anniversary of June 22, 2022, (b) in which we have an annual total gross revenue of at least $1.235 billion, or (c) in which we are deemed to be a large accelerated filer, which means the market value of our ordinary equity that is held by non-affiliates exceeds $700 million as of the last business day of the second fiscal quarter of such fiscal year; and (ii) the date on which we have issued more than $1 billion in non-convertible debt securities during the prior three-year period. References herein to “emerging growth company” have the meaning associated with it in the JOBS Act.
Foreign Private Issuer Exemptions
We report as a “foreign private issuer” under U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission rules. Consequently, we are subject to the reporting requirements under the Exchange Act applicable to foreign private issuers. As a result, we are not required to file our annual report on Form 20-F until 120 days after the end of each fiscal year and we will furnish reports on Form 6-K to the SEC regarding certain information required to be publicly disclosed by us in Israel or that is distributed or required to be distributed by us to our shareholders. Based on our foreign private issuer status, we will not be required to (i) file periodic reports and financial statements with the SEC as frequently or as promptly as a U.S. company whose securities are registered under the Exchange Act, (ii) comply with Regulation FD, which addresses certain restrictions on the selective disclosure of material information or (iii) comply with SEC rules relating to proxy solicitation in connection with shareholder meetings and presentation of shareholder proposals. In addition, among other matters, based on our foreign private issuer status, our officers, directors and principal shareholders will be exempt from the reporting and “short-swing” profit recovery provisions of Section 16 of the Exchange Act and the rules under the Exchange Act with respect to their purchases and sales of Pagaya Ordinary Shares.
Risk Factors
Our business and an investment in the Class A Ordinary Shares are subject to numerous risks and uncertainties, including those highlighted in the section of this prospectus entitled “Risk Factors.” Some of those risks include:
It is not possible to predict the actual number of shares we will sell under the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement to B. Riley Principal Capital II, or the actual gross proceeds resulting from those sales.
The sale and issuance of our Class A Ordinary Shares to B. Riley Principal Capital II will cause dilution to our existing shareholders, and the sale of Class A Ordinary Shares acquired by B. Riley Principal Capital II, or the perception that such sales may occur, could cause the price of our Class A Ordinary Shares to fall.
Investors who buy shares at different times will likely pay different prices.
Our management team will have broad discretion over the use of the net proceeds from our sale of Class A Ordinary Shares to B. Riley Principal Capital II, if any, and you may not agree with how we use the proceeds and the proceeds may not be invested successfully.
We are a rapidly growing company with a relatively limited operating history, which may result in increased risks, uncertainties, expenses and difficulties, and it may be difficult to evaluate our future prospects.
Our revenue growth rate and financial performance in recent periods may not be indicative of future performance and such growth may slow over time. In addition, the historical returns attributable to the Financing Vehicles should not be indicative of the future results of the Financing Vehicles and poor performance of the Financing Vehicles could cause a decline in our revenue, income and cash flow.
If we fail to effectively manage our growth, our business, financial condition, and results of operations could be adversely affected. In addition, we may from time to time undertake internal corporate reorganizations that may adversely impact our business and results of operations.
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Our recent reduction in workforce, announced on January 18, 2023, may not result in anticipated savings or operational efficiencies, could result in total costs and expenses that are greater than expected, and could disrupt our business
Our business and the performance of Financing Vehicles may be adversely affected by economic conditions and other factors that we cannot control. These factors include interest rates, rising inflation, instability in the banking system, supply chain disruptions, labor shortages, unemployment levels, conditions in the housing market, immigration policies, government shutdowns, trade wars and delays in tax refunds, as well as events such as natural disasters, acts of war (including the ongoing Russia-Ukraine conflict), terrorism, catastrophes, and pandemics, including the COVID-19.
Adverse developments affecting financial institutions, companies in the financial services industry or the financial services industry generally, such as actual events or concerns involving liquidity, defaults or non-performance, could adversely affect our operations and liquidity.
Our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected as a result of an unexpected failure of a vendor,bank or other third party service provider that presents concentration risks to us or our Partners.
We are heavily dependent on our AI technology. If we are unable to continue to improve our AI technology or if our AI technology does not operate as we expect, contains errors or is otherwise ineffective, we could improperly evaluate products, not be able to process the volume we have historically, and our growth prospects, business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
We rely on our Partners to originate assets facilitated with the assistance of our AI technology. Currently, a limited number of Partners account for a substantial portion of the total number of financial products facilitated with the assistance of our AI technology and, ultimately, our revenue. If these Partners were to cease or limit operations with us, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
If we are unable to both retain existing Partners and attract and onboard new Partners, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
Our ability to raise capital from asset investors is a vital component of the products we offer to Partners. If we are unable to raise capital from asset investors at competitive rates, it would materially reduce our revenue and cash flow and adversely affect our financial condition.
The fees paid to us by Financing Vehicles comprise a key portion of our revenues, and a reduction in these revenues could have an adverse effect on our results of operations. If we are unable to raise new and successor Financing Vehicles, the growth of the assets of such Financing Vehicles and related fees generated, our ability to deploy capital into investments and the potential for increasing our performance income would slow or decrease, all of which would materially reduce our revenues and cash flows and adversely affect our financial condition.
If we are unable to develop and maintain a diverse and robust funding component of our network, our growth prospects, business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected. In addition, certain Financing Vehicles have redemption features and a substantial withdrawal of capital by one or more asset investors may have an adverse effect on the Financing Vehicles’ performance.
Our AI technology has not yet been extensively tested during different economic conditions, including down-cycles. We continue to build and refine our AI technology to offer new products and services as we expand into new markets, such as real estate, and if our AI technology does not perform as well in these new markets as it has in our existing business and we are unable to manage the related risks and effectively execute our growth strategy as we enter into these new lines of business, our growth prospects, business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
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The industry in which we operate is highly competitive, and if we fail to compete effectively, we could experience price reductions, reduced margins or loss of revenues.
A significant portion of our current revenues are derived from Financing Vehicles that acquire consumer credit assets and related financial products, and as a result, we are particularly susceptible to fluctuations in consumer credit activity and the capital markets.
Our reputation and brand are important to our success. If we are unable to continue developing our reputation and brand, or if our brand or reputation is compromised, our ability to retain existing and attract new Partners and asset investors and our ability to maintain and improve our relationship with regulators of our industry could be adversely affected. As a result, our business, financial condition and results of operations may suffer.
If we are unable to manage the risks associated with fraudulent activity, our brand and reputation, business, financial condition, and results of operations could be adversely affected and we could face material legal, regulatory and financial exposure (including fines and other penalties).
We are subject to risks related to our dependency on our Founders, key personnel, employees and independent contractors, including highly-skilled technical experts, as well as attracting, retaining and developing human capital in a highly competitive market.
We may need to raise additional funds in the future that may be unavailable on acceptable terms, or at all. As a result, we may be unable to meet our future capital requirements, which could limit our ability to grow and jeopardize our ability to continue our business.
Our risk management policies and procedures, and those of our third-party vendors upon which we rely, may not be fully effective in identifying or mitigating risk exposure.
We actively evaluate and consider potential strategic transactions, including acquisitions of, or investments in, businesses, technologies, services, products and other assets in the future. We may not be able to realize the potential benefits of any such future business investments or acquisitions, and we may not be able to successfully integrate acquisition targets, which could hurt our ability to grow our business.
Regulators may assert, and courts may conclude, that certain uses of AI technology leads to unintentional bias or discrimination.
We may be unable to sufficiently, and it may be difficult and costly to, obtain, maintain, protect, or enforce our intellectual property and other proprietary rights.
Our proprietary AI technology relies in part on the use of our Partners’ borrower data and third-party data, and if we lose the ability to use such data, or if such data contains gaps or inaccuracies, our business could be adversely affected.
Cyberattacks and security breaches of our technology, or those impacting our users or third parties, could adversely impact our brand and reputation and our business, operating results and financial condition.
We may fail to successfully integrate Darwin into our existing operations and /or fail to fully realize all of the anticipated benefits, including enhanced revenue, earnings and cash flow from our acquisition which could have a significant and adverse impact on our single-family rental (“SFR”) operations or the returns of certain Financing Vehicles.
If we fail to continuously innovate, improve and expand the technology we use in our SFR operations, namely our AI platform and Darwin’s property management platform, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be negatively impacted.
The success of our SFR operations depends on general economic conditions, the health of the U.S. real estate industry generally, and risks generally incident to the ownership and leasing of single-family
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residential real estate, and our SFR operations may be negatively impacted by economic and industry downturns, including seasonal and cyclical trends, and volatility in the single-family residential real estate lease market.
We are subject to payment-related and leasing fraud from tenants and an increase in or failure to deal effectively with fraud, fraudulent activities, fictitious transactions, or illegal transactions.
Vacant properties could be difficult to lease, which could adversely affect our SFR operations.
Compliance with governmental laws, regulations, and covenants that are applicable to our SFR Partners’ (defined hereunder) properties or that may be passed in the future, including affordability covenants, permit, license, and zoning requirements, may adversely affect our ability to manage customer properties and could adversely affect our growth strategy.
The dual class structure of Pagaya Ordinary Shares has the effect of concentrating voting power with certain shareholders—in particular, our Founders—which will effectively eliminate your ability to influence the outcome of many important determinations and transactions, including a change in control.
Litigation, regulatory actions, consumer complaints and compliance issues could subject us to significant fines, penalties, judgments, remediation costs and/or requirements resulting in increased expenses. If we are deemed to be an investment company under the U.S. Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder (the “Investment Company Act”), we may be required to institute burdensome compliance requirements and our activities may be restricted, and our ability to conduct business could be materially adversely affected.
If we fail to comply with or facilitate compliance with, or our Partners fail to comply with the variety of federal, state and local laws to which we or they are subject, including those related to consumer protection, consumer finance, lending, fair lending, data protection, and investment advisory services, or if we or our Partners are found to be operating without having obtained necessary state or local licenses, it may result in regulatory action, litigation, or monetary payments or may otherwise negatively impact our reputation, business, and results of operations, and may prevent us from serving users in jurisdictions where those regulations apply.
As the political and regulatory framework for AI technology and machine learning evolves, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.
If obligations by one or more Partners that utilize our network were subject to successful challenge that the Partner was not the “true lender,” such obligations may be unenforceable, subject to rescission or otherwise impaired, we or other program participants may be subject to penalties, and/or our commercial relationships may suffer, each of which would adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
If assets originated by our Partners were found to violate the laws of one or more states, whether at origination or after sale by our Partners, assets acquired, directly or indirectly, by Financing Vehicles may be unenforceable or otherwise impaired, we (or Financing Vehicles) may be subject to, among other things, fines and penalties, and/or our commercial relationships may suffer, each of which would adversely affect our business and results of operations.
The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (the “CFPB”) has at times taken expansive views of its authority to regulate consumer financial services, creating uncertainty as to how the agency’s actions or the actions of any other new government agency could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We may be subject to regulatory risks related to our operation in Israel.
Uncertainty and instability resulting from the conflict between Russia and Ukraine could adversely affect our business, financial condition and operations.
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Conditions in Israel and relations between Israel and other countries could adversely affect our business.
Our management team has limited experience managing a public company.
The price of the Class A Ordinary Shares and the price of the public warrants have been and may continue to be volatile.
We may issue additional Class A Ordinary Shares from time to time, including under our equity incentive plans. Any such issuances would dilute the interest of our shareholders and likely present other risks.
An active public trading market for our Class A Ordinary Shares may not develop or be sustained to provide adequate liquidity.
There can be no assurances that we will not be a passive foreign investment company (a “PFIC”) for any taxable year, which could subject U.S. Holders (defined hereunder) to significant adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences.
We depend on highly skilled personnel to enhance our product and grow our business, and if we are unable to hire, integrate and retain our personnel, we may not be able to address competitive challenges and continue our rapid growth.
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THE OFFERING
Class A Ordinary Shares offered by the Selling Securityholder
Up to 40,139,607 Class A Ordinary Shares, consisting of:
Up to 139,607 Commitment Shares that we issued or may issue to the Selling Securityholder pursuant to the Purchase Agreement in consideration of its commitment to purchase Class A Ordinary Shares at our election under the Purchase Agreement; and
Up to 40,000,000 Class A Ordinary Shares (the “Purchase Shares”) we may elect, in our sole discretion, to issue and sell to the Selling Securityholder under the Purchase Agreement from time to time after the Commencement Date.
Class A Ordinary Shares outstanding as of March 31, 2023
529,168,740 Class A Ordinary Shares
Class A Ordinary Shares outstanding after giving effect to the issuance of the shares registered hereunder
569,308,347 Class A Ordinary Shares.
Use of proceeds
We will not receive any proceeds from the resale of Class A Ordinary Shares included in this prospectus by the Selling Securityholder. However, we may receive up to $300,000,000 in aggregate gross proceeds under the Purchase Agreement from sales of Class A Ordinary Shares that we may elect to make to Selling Securityholder pursuant to the Purchase Agreement, if any, from time to time in our sole discretion, from and after the Commencement Date.
We expect to use the net proceeds that we receive from sales of our Class A Ordinary Shares to the Selling Securityholder, if any, under the Purchase Agreement for working capital and general corporate purposes. We have not yet determined the amount of net proceeds to be used specifically for any of the foregoing purposes. Accordingly, we retain broad discretion over the use of the net proceeds from the sale of our Class A Ordinary Shares under the Purchase Agreement. The precise amount and timing of the application of such proceeds will depend upon our liquidity needs and the availability and cost of other capital over which we have little or no control. As of the date hereof, we cannot specify with certainty the particular uses for the net proceeds. See the section titled “Use of Proceeds.”
Risk Factors
See the section titled “Risk Factors” and the other information included in this prospectus for a discussion of factors you should consider carefully before deciding to invest in our Class A Ordinary Shares
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Conflict of Interest
B. Riley Principal Capital II, LLC is an affiliate of B. Riley Securities, Inc. (“BRS”), a registered broker-dealer and FINRA (as defined below) member. BRS will act as an executing broker that will effectuate resales of our Class A Ordinary Shares that have been and may be acquired by B. Riley Principal Capital II from us pursuant to the Purchase Agreement to the public in this offering.
Because B. Riley Principal Capital II will receive all the net proceeds from such resales of our Class A Ordinary Shares made to the public through BRS, BRS is deemed to have a “conflict of interest” within the meaning of Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (“FINRA”) Rule 5121. Consequently, this offering will be conducted in compliance with the provisions of FINRA Rule 5121, which requires that a “qualified independent underwriter,” as defined in FINRA Rule 5121, participate in the preparation of the registration statement that includes this prospectus and exercise the usual standards of “due diligence” with respect thereto. Accordingly, we have engaged Northland Securities, Inc., a registered broker-dealer and FINRA member (“Northland”), to be the qualified independent underwriter in this offering and, in such capacity, participate in the preparation of the registration statement that includes this prospectus and exercise the usual standards of “due diligence” with respect thereto. The Selling Securityholder has agreed to pay Northland a cash fee of $50,000 upon the completion of this offering as consideration for its services and to reimburse Northland up to $5,000 for expenses incurred in connection with acting as the qualified independent underwriter in this offering. Northland will receive no other compensation for acting as the qualified independent underwriter in this offering. In accordance with FINRA Rule 5121, BRS is not permitted to sell our Class A Ordinary Shares in this offering to an account over which it exercises discretionary authority without the prior specific written approval of the account holder. See “Plan of Distribution (Conflict of Interest).”
Nasdaq Ticker-Symbol
Class A Ordinary Shares: “PGY”
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RISK FACTORS
In addition to the other information contained in this prospectus, including the matters addressed under the heading “Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements; Market, Ranking and Other Industry Data,” you should carefully consider the following risk factors in this prospectus before investing in our securities. Certain factors may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial conditions and results of operations. The risks and uncertainties described below disclose both material and other risks and uncertainties, and are not intended to be exhaustive and are not the only ones we face. Additional risks and uncertainties that we are unaware of, or that we currently believe to be immaterial also may materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows in future periods or are not identified because they are generally common to businesses. If any of these risks occurs, our business, financial condition, results of operations and future prospects could be materially and adversely affected. In that event, the trading price of Pagaya Ordinary Shares could decline, and you could lose part or all of your investment.
Unless otherwise noted or the context otherwise requires, all references in this section to the “Company,” “we,” “us” or “our” refer to the business of Pagaya following the consummation of the Merger.
Risks Related to the Offering
It is not possible to predict the actual number of shares we will sell under the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement to B. Riley Principal Capital II, or the actual gross proceeds resulting from those sales.
On August 17, 2022, we entered into the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement with B. Riley Principal Capital II, pursuant to which B. Riley Principal Capital II has committed to purchase up to $300,000,000 of our Class A Ordinary Shares, subject to certain limitations and conditions set forth in the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement. The Class A Ordinary Shares that may be issued under the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement may be sold by us to B. Riley Principal Capital II at our discretion from time to time over the 24-month period beginning on the Commencement Date.
We generally have the right to control the timing and amount of any sales of our Class A Ordinary Shares to B. Riley Principal Capital II under the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement. Sales of our Class A Ordinary Shares, if any, to B. Riley Principal Capital II under the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement will depend upon market conditions and other factors to be determined by us. We may ultimately decide to sell to B. Riley Principal Capital II all, some or none of our Class A Ordinary Shares that may be available for us to sell to B. Riley Principal Capital II pursuant to the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement.
Because the purchase price per share to be paid by B. Riley Principal Capital II for our Class A Ordinary Shares that we may elect to sell to B. Riley Principal Capital II under the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement, if any, will fluctuate based on the market prices of our Class A Ordinary Shares at the time we elect to sell shares to B. Riley Principal Capital II pursuant to the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement, if any, it is not possible for us to predict, as of the date of this prospectus and prior to any such sales, the number of our Class A Ordinary Shares that we will sell to B. Riley Principal Capital II under the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement, the purchase price per share that B. Riley Principal Capital II will pay for shares purchased from us under the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement, or the aggregate gross proceeds that we will receive from those purchases by B. Riley Principal Capital II under the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement.
The Equity Financing Purchase Agreement provides that we may sell up to a maximum of 40,139,607 Class A Ordinary Shares for an aggregate of $300,000,000, which Class A Ordinary Shares are being registered for resale under the registration statement that includes this prospectus and includes 46,536 Commitment Shares that we have issued to B. Riley Principal Capital II and 93,071 Commitment Shares that we may issue to B. Riley Principal Capital II if certain conditions are met pursuant to the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement. The number of Class A Ordinary Shares ultimately offered for sale by B. Riley Principal Capital II is dependent upon the number of Class A Ordinary Shares, if any, we ultimately elect to sell to B. Riley Principal Capital II under the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement.
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The sale and issuance of our Class A Ordinary Shares to B. Riley Principal Capital II will cause dilution to our existing shareholders, and the sale of Class A Ordinary Shares acquired by B. Riley Principal Capital II, or the perception that such sales may occur, could cause the price of our Class A Ordinary Shares to fall.
Upon the initial satisfaction of the conditions to B. Riley Principal Capital II’s purchase obligations under the Purchase Agreement, including the effectiveness of the registration statement that includes this prospectus, we will have the right, but not the obligation, from time to time at our sole discretion over the 24-month period beginning on the Commencement Date to direct B. Riley Principal Capital II to purchase up to $300,000,000 of our Class A Ordinary Shares, subject to certain limitations and conditions set forth in the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement. We are registering 40,139,607 Class A Ordinary Shares under the Securities Act for resale by the Selling Securityholder under this prospectus, which represents (i) the 46,536 Initial Commitment Shares that we issued to B. Riley Principal Capital II upon execution of the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement on August 17, 2022, (ii) up to 93,071 Additional Commitment Shares that we may issue to B. Riley Principal Capital II pursuant to the Purchase Agreement if certain conditions are met, and (iii) up to 40,000,000 of our Class A Ordinary Shares that may be issued to B. Riley Principal Capital II from and after the Commencement Date, if and when we elect to sell shares to B. Riley Principal Capital II under the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement. If all of the shares offered for resale by B. Riley Principal Capital II under this prospectus were issued and outstanding, such shares would represent approximately 7% of outstanding Class A Ordinary Shares, approximately 5% of outstanding Pagaya Ordinary Shares, and approximately 12% of our public float, as of March 31, 2023.
The purchase price for the shares that we may sell to B. Riley Principal Capital II under the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement will fluctuate based on the price of our Class A Ordinary Shares. Depending on market liquidity at the time, sales of such shares may cause the trading price of our Class A Ordinary Shares to fall.
If and when we do sell shares to B. Riley Principal Capital II, after B. Riley Principal Capital II has acquired the shares, B. Riley Principal Capital II may resell all, some, or none of those shares at any time or from time to time in its discretion. Therefore, sales to B. Riley Principal Capital II by us could result in substantial dilution to the interests of other holders of our Class A Ordinary Shares. Additionally, the sale of a substantial number of Class A Ordinary Shares to B. Riley Principal Capital II, or the anticipation of such sales, could make it more difficult for us to sell equity or equity-related securities in the future at a time and at a price that we might otherwise wish to effect sales.
Under the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement, B. Riley Principal Capital II will purchase Class A Ordinary Shares at a per share price that will be less than the then-prevailing market price of the Class A Ordinary Shares which could cause the price of the Class A Ordinary Shares to decline.
The Class A Ordinary Shares to be issued to B. Riley Principal Capital II pursuant to the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement will be purchased at a per share price equal to the VWAP of the Class A Ordinary Shares for the applicable Purchase Valuation Period on the Purchase Date for each Purchase or the applicable Intraday Purchase Valuation Period on the Purchase Date for each Intraday Purchase, less a fixed 3.0% discount to the VWAP for such valuation period. Accordingly, B. Riley Principal Capital II will have a financial incentive to sell Class A Ordinary Shares immediately to realize the profit equal to the difference between the discounted purchase price and the then-prevailing market price for the Class A Ordinary Shares. If B. Riley Principal Capital II sells the Class A Ordinary Shares that it holds, the market price of Class A Ordinary Shares could decrease. If the market price of Class A Ordinary Shares decreases, B. Riley Principal Capital II may have a further incentive to sell Class A Ordinary Shares, and such sales may have a further impact on the market price of the Class A Ordinary Shares. The resale by B. Riley Principal Capital II of a significant amount of shares registered for resale in this offering at any given time, or the perception that these sales may occur, could cause the market price of our Class A Ordinary Shares to decline and to be highly volatile.
Investors who buy shares at different times will likely pay different prices.
Pursuant to the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement, we will have discretion, subject to market demand, to vary the timing, prices, and numbers of shares sold to B. Riley Principal Capital II. If and when we do elect to sell Class A Ordinary Shares to B. Riley Principal Capital II pursuant to the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement, after
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B. Riley Principal Capital II has acquired such shares, B. Riley Principal Capital II may resell all, some or none of such shares at any time or from time to time in its discretion and at different prices. As a result, investors who purchase shares from B. Riley Principal Capital II at different times will likely pay different prices for those shares, and so may experience different levels of dilution and in some cases substantial dilution and different outcomes in their investment results. Investors may experience a decline in the value of the shares they purchase from B. Riley Principal Capital II in this offering as a result of future sales made by us to B. Riley Principal Capital II at prices lower than the prices such investors paid for their shares in this offering. In addition, if we sell a substantial number of shares to B. Riley Principal Capital II under the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement, or if investors expect that we will do so, the actual sales of shares or the mere existence of our arrangement with B. Riley Principal Capital II may make it more difficult for us to sell equity or equity-related securities in the future at a time and at a price that we might otherwise wish to effect such sales.
Our management team will have broad discretion over the use of the net proceeds from our sale of our Class A Ordinary Shares to B. Riley Principal Capital II, if any, and investors may not agree with how we use the proceeds and the proceeds may not be invested successfully.
Our management team will have broad discretion as to the use of the net proceeds from our sale of our Class A Ordinary Shares to B. Riley Principal Capital II, if any, and we could use such proceeds for purposes other than those contemplated at the time of commencement of this offering. Accordingly, investors will be relying on the judgment of our management team with regard to the use of those net proceeds, and investors will not have the opportunity, as part of their investment decision, to assess whether the proceeds are being used appropriately. It is possible that, pending their use, we may invest those net proceeds in a way that does not yield a favorable, or any, return for us. The failure of our management team to use such funds effectively could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, operating results and cash flows.
Risks Related to the Operations of Our Business
We have incurred U.S. GAAP net losses, and we may not be able to achieve profitability in the future.
For the year ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, we incurred U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“U.S. GAAP”) net losses of $302.3 million and $91.2 million, respectively. We intend to continue to develop and improve our proprietary AI technology, attract and develop business relationships with new and existing partners, expand the types of financial product offerings supported by our AI technology, and otherwise continue to grow our business, and our revenue growth and cost savings may not keep pace with our continued investments. We expect to incur losses in the future for a number of reasons, including, but not limited to, the other risks described in this section. Any failure to increase our revenue sufficiently to keep pace with our investments could prevent us from being profitable. If we are unable to successfully address these risks and challenges as we encounter them, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
We are a rapidly growing company with a relatively limited operating history, which may result in increased risks, uncertainties, expenses and difficulties, and it may be difficult to evaluate our future prospects.
We were founded in 2016 and have experienced rapid growth in recent years in the markets we serve and we plan to continue to expand in existing and new markets. Our limited operating history may make it difficult to make accurate predictions about our future performance. Assessing our business and future prospects may also be difficult because of the risks and difficulties we face.
These risks and difficulties include our ability to:
maintain cost-effective access to capital and a diversified asset funding strategy;
improve the effectiveness, predictiveness and performance of our AI technology;
successfully adjust our proprietary AI technology, products and services in a timely manner in response to changing macroeconomic conditions, including consumer credit performance, fluctuations in the credit markets, the recent increase in interest rates and the wind-down of stimulus programs;
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maintain and increase the volume of financial products facilitated with the assistance of our AI technology;
enter into new and maintain existing relationships with Partners;
expand the use and applicability of our AI technology;
successfully build our brand and protect our reputation from negative publicity;
successfully compete with companies that are currently in, or may in the future enter, the business of providing technological services to enhance the access to credit for customers and funding services;
enter into new markets and introduce new products and services;
comply with and successfully adapt to complex and evolving legal and regulatory environments in our existing markets and ones we may enter in the future;
effectively secure and maintain the confidentiality of the information received, accessed, stored, provided and used across our systems;
successfully obtain and maintain funding and liquidity to support continued growth and general corporate purposes;
successfully manage rollover risk, and contractual and contingent liquidity outflow risks related to our financing facilities
attract, integrate and retain qualified employees and independent contractors; and
effectively manage, scale and expand the capabilities of our teams, outsourcing relationships, third-party service providers, operating infrastructure and other business operations.
If we are not able to timely and effectively address these risks and difficulties as well as those described elsewhere in this “Risk Factors” section, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be harmed.
Our revenue growth rate and financial performance in recent periods may not be indicative of future performance and such growth may slow over time. In addition, the historical returns attributable to the Financing Vehicles should not be indicative of the future results of the Financing Vehicles and poor performance of the Financing Vehicles would likely cause a decline in our revenue, net income and cash flow.
We have grown rapidly over the last several years, and our recent revenue growth rate and financial performance may not be indicative of our future performance. Our revenue and other income was $748.9 million and $474.6 million for the years ended December 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively, representing a 58% growth rate. For the years ended December 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, we generated net loss attributable to shareholders of $302.3 million and $91.2 million, respectively, and Adjusted EBITDA of negative $4.8 million and $46.0 million, respectively. The Adjusted EBITDA decrease for the year ended December 31, 2022 as compared to the prior year period reflects the impact of (i) costs related to hiring to support our future growth initiatives, including expanding our research and development team and significantly expanding our senior team to take advantage of incremental Partner opportunities, and (ii) recent changes in macroeconomic conditions, including rising interest rates and the increased cost of capital. We intend to continue to make investments to support our business growth and those investments along with the potential for higher interest rates and cost of capital could negatively impact our net income (loss) attributable to shareholders and Adjusted EBITDA.
Our revenue for any previous quarterly or annual period may not be a reliable indicator of our revenue or revenue growth in future periods. As our business has grown, our revenue growth rates have slowed and may continue to slow, and or our revenue may decline, in future periods for a number of reasons, which may include slowing demand for our AI technology offerings, products and services, increasing competition, a decrease in our ability to access capital or the growth of our network, increasing regulatory costs and challenges, adverse changes in the macroeconomic environment and consumers’ ability to service their debt and our failure to capitalize on growth
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opportunities. Further, we believe our growth over the last several years has been driven in large part by the expansion across similar consumer credit assets, which will slow as we enter all consumer credit markets. The recent increase in interest rates may impact flow of, availability of, and pricing of funding, and may impact investor demand for risk assets such as consumer credit which could constrain our ability to raise new funding for loan originations and have a negative impact on our results of operations. In addition, we believe this growth has been driven in part by the transformative shift by consumers to e-commerce and the acceptance of online networks and digital solutions for the use of and access to financial products that we expect may slow down over time, and as a result, our financial performance may be adversely affected.
We have established Financing Vehicles, certain of which have a limited track record, which may make our business difficult to evaluate. The historical and potential future returns of the Financing Vehicles are not directly linked to returns on Pagaya Ordinary Shares. Therefore, any positive performance of the Financing Vehicles will not necessarily result in positive returns on an investment in Pagaya Ordinary Shares. However, poor performance of the Financing Vehicles would likely cause a decline in our revenue, net income/loss and cash flow from such Financing Vehicles, and would likely negatively affect our ability to raise additional capital for the same or future Financing Vehicles, and would therefore have a negative effect on our performance and, in all likelihood, the returns on an investment in Pagaya Ordinary Shares. In fact, in December of 2022 one of these Financing Vehicles had its first negative month. Moreover, we could and have already incurred losses related to our risk retention holdings as a result of poor investment performance by the Financing Vehicles. The future rate of return for any current or future Financing Vehicles may vary considerably from the historical rate of return generated by any particular Financing Vehicle, or for the Financing Vehicles as a whole. Poor performance of the Financing Vehicles could make it more difficult for us to raise new capital. Asset investors might decline to invest in future Financing Vehicles we raise, and asset investors in existing Financing Vehicles might withdraw their investments, as a result of poor performance of the Financing Vehicles in which they are invested. Accordingly, poor performance may deter future investment in Financing Vehicles and thereby decrease the capital invested in the Financing Vehicles and, ultimately, our fee revenue, net income/loss and cash flow.
If we fail to effectively manage our growth, our business, financial condition, and results of operations could be adversely affected. In addition, we may from time to time undertake internal corporate reorganizations that may adversely impact our business and results of operations.
Over the last several years, we have experienced rapid growth in our business and the number of employees and independent contractors, and we expect to continue to experience growth in the future. This rapid growth has placed, and may continue to place, significant demands on our management, processes, systems and operational, technological and financial resources. Our ability to manage our growth effectively, integrate new employees, independent contractors and technologies into our existing business and attract new Partners and maintain relationships with existing Partners will require us to continue to retain, attract, train, motivate and manage employees and independent contractors and expand our operational, technological and financial infrastructure. For example, in January 2023, we underwent a reduction in workforce affecting approximately 20% of our workforce across both the United States and Israel, as compared to our headcount as of December 31, 2022. This reduction in workforce was undertaken in response to rapid growth in recent years to enable us to streamline our operations in the current market environment and achieve our near- to medium-term priorities. From time to time, we rely on temporary independent contractor programs for various aspects of our business. Failure to effectively implement and manage such programs could result in misclassification or other employment-related claims or inquiries by governmental agencies. Continued growth could strain our ability to develop and improve our operational, technological, financial and management controls, reporting systems and procedures, recruit, train and retain highly skilled personnel, obtain cost-effective funding and maintain Partners’ and their customers’ satisfaction. Any of the foregoing factors could negatively affect our business, ability to obtain cost-effective funding, financial condition, and results of operations.
From time to time, we may undertake internal corporate reorganizations in an effort to simplify our organizational structure, streamline our operations or for other operational reasons. Such internal reorganization involves and may involve, among other things, the combination or dissolution of certain of our existing subsidiaries and the creation of new subsidiaries. These transactions could be disruptive to our business, result in significant
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expense, require regulatory approvals, and fail to result in the intended or expected benefits, any of which could adversely impact our business and results of operations.
Our recent reduction in workforce, announced on January 18, 2023, may not result in anticipated savings or operational efficiencies, could result in total costs and expenses that are greater than expected, and could disrupt our business.
On January 18, 2023, we underwent a reduction in workforce of approximately 20% of employees across our Israel and U.S. offices, as compared to our headcount as of December 31, 2022. We expect that this reduction in workforce will enable us to streamline our operations in the current market environment and achieve our near- to medium-term priorities.
We may incur additional expenses not currently contemplated due to events associated with the reduction in workforce, for example, the reduction in workforce may have a future impact on other areas of our liabilities and obligations, which could result in losses in future periods. We may not realize, in full or in part, the anticipated benefits and savings from this reduction in workforce due to unforeseen difficulties, delays or unexpected costs. If we are unable to realize the expected operational efficiencies and cost savings from the restructuring, our operating results and financial condition would be adversely affected. In addition, we may need to undertake additional workforce reductions or restructuring activities in the future.
Furthermore, our reduction in workforce may be disruptive to our operations. For example, our workforce reduction could yield unanticipated consequences, such as attrition beyond planned staff reductions, increased difficulties in our day-to-day operations and reduced employee morale. If employees who were not affected by the reduction in workforce seek alternative employment, this could result in unplanned additional expense to ensure adequate resourcing or harm our productivity. Our workforce reduction could also harm our ability to attract and retain qualified management, sales and marketing personnel who are critical to our business. Any failure to attract or retain qualified personnel could adversely affect our business.
Our business and the performance of Financing Vehicles may be adversely affected by economic conditions and other factors that we cannot control. These factors include interest rates, rising inflation, the instability of the banking system, supply chain disruptions, labor shortages, the wind-down of stimulus programs, unemployment levels, conditions in the housing market, immigration policies, government shutdowns, trade wars and delays in tax refunds, as well as events such as natural disasters, acts of war (including the ongoing Russia-Ukraine conflict), terrorism, catastrophes, and pandemics, including the COVID-19.
Failure of the U.S. federal government to manage its fiscal matters or to raise or further suspend the debt ceiling, and changes in the amount of federal debt, may negatively impact the economic environment and adversely impact our results of operations.
The U.S. federal government has established a limit on the level of federal debt that the U.S. federal government can have outstanding, often referred to as the debt ceiling. The U.S. Congress has authority to raise or suspend the debt ceiling and to approve the funding of U.S. federal government operations within the debt ceiling, and has done both frequently in the past, often on a relatively short-term basis. On January 19, 2023, the U.S. reached its borrowing limit and currently faces risk of defaulting on its debt. Generally, if effective legislation to manage the level of federal debt is not enacted and the debt ceiling is reached in any given year, the federal government may suspend its investments for certain government accounts, among other available options, in order to prioritize payments on its obligations. It is anticipated that the U.S. federal government will be able to fund its operations through approximately mid-2023. However, contention among policymakers, among other factors, may hinder the enactment of policies to further increase the borrowing limit or address its debt balance timely. A failure by the U.S. Congress to raise the debt limit would increase the risk of default by the U.S. on its obligations, the risk of a lowering of the U.S. federal government’s credit rating, and the risk of other economic dislocations. Such a failure, or the perceived risk of such a failure, could consequently have a material adverse effect on the financial markets and economic conditions in the U.S. and globally. If economic conditions severely deteriorate as a result of U.S. federal government fiscal gridlock, our operations, our Partners or their respective customers, or our asset investors,
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could be affected, which may adversely impact our financial condition and results of operations. These risks may also impact our overall liquidity, our borrowing costs, or the market price of our ordinary shares.
Uncertainty and negative trends in general economic conditions, including significant tightening of credit markets, historically have created a difficult operating environment for us, our Partners and their respective customers, and our asset investors. Many factors, including factors that are beyond our control, may impact our results of operations or financial condition and our overall success by affecting our access to capital. Challenges our Partners may face with low demand for their financial products or willingness or capacity of their customers to make payment on obligations, or the returns on other assets, may affect the success of the Financing Vehicles. For example, the personal loans acquired from our Partners are, for the most part, unsecured, and our Partners’ customers may not prioritize repayment of those loans in an economic downcycle. These factors include interest rates, rising inflation, supply chain disruptions, labor shortages, weakening exchange rates, unemployment levels, conditions in the housing market, immigration policies, government shutdowns, trade wars and delays in tax refunds, as well as events such as natural disasters, acts of war (including the recent Russia-Ukraine conflict), terrorism, catastrophes and pandemics. We face a heightened level of interest rate risk as the U.S. Federal Reserve Board (the “FRB”) has tapered its quantitative easing program and continues to increase interest rates.
In response to the economic impacts and disruptions associated with COVID-19, governments around the world, including in the United States, provided significant fiscal and monetary stimuli, which have had the effect, among other things, of supporting overall levels of employment, consumer spending and savings levels, and the ability of consumers to service their debt. The continued wind-down of these stimulus programs may adversely affect economic conditions and consumer credit performance, which may reduce the demand for and pricing of consumer credit assets and negatively impact our growth, revenues and profitability.
In addition, the United States has recently experienced historically high levels of inflation. According to the U.S. Department of Labor, the annual inflation rate for the United States has ranged from approximately 9.1% for June 2022 to 6.5% in December of 2022. Rising inflation may adversely impact the ability of borrowers to service their debt, which could lead to deterioration of the credit performance of loans and impact investor returns, and therefore may result in lower demand from investors for assets generated on our platform and lead to constraints on our ability to fund new volume origination. In addition, rising inflation may create an escalation in our operating costs, including employee compensation and general corporate expenses, which could reduce cash flow and operating income. Although we have not experienced material impacts to our business performance from inflationary pressure, our business may be materially impacted in the future.
Furthermore, beginning in March 2022, and continuing in 2023, the U.S. Federal Reserve Board announced several increases in the federal funds rate, primarily due to inflation and a strong labor market. This recent increase in interest rates has led to a tighter market for credit and we have and may further experience reduced access to capital and our revenue could be negatively impacted. Increased interest rates could unfavorably impact demand for all refinancing loan activities and reduce demand across personal loans and home loans, including, but not limited to, any variable-rate loan products, as well as adversely impact the spending levels of borrowers and their ability and willingness to borrow money. The growth of the personal lending market has benefited from historically low interest rates and as interest rates increase the growth of this market and our growth could be negatively impacted. Higher interest rates often lead to higher payment obligations, which may reduce the ability of borrowers to remain current on their obligations and therefore, lead to increased delinquencies, defaults, customer bankruptcies, charge-offs, and decreasing recoveries, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our business. Any impact to investor returns may lead to an adverse impact on our earnings. As the risk-free rate of return increases, investor demand for risk assets such as consumer credit may be impacted, which may constrain our ability to raise new funding for loan originations and have a negative impact on our results of operations. While we continue to raise new funding, the cost of capital has increased due to the higher interest rate environment. In addition, major medical expenses, divorce, death or other issues that affect borrowers could affect a borrower’s willingness or ability to make payments on their loans. If borrowers default on loans, the cost to service these loans may also increase without a corresponding increase in fees and the value of the loans held by our funds and Financing Vehicles could decline. Higher default rates by these borrowers may lead to lower demand by Partners, which would adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Any sustained decline in demand for investment in loans
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(including through our funds or Financing Vehicles) or any increase in delinquencies, defaults or foreclosures that result from economic downturns, may adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
If there is an economic downturn that affects our current and prospective Partners and their customers, asset investors or the performance of the Financing Vehicles, or if we are unable to address and mitigate the risks associated with any of the foregoing, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected. Additionally, our AI technology has not been extensively tested during economic downturns. For more information, see “—Our AI technology has not yet been extensively tested during different economic conditions, including down-cycles. We continue to build and refine our AI technology to offer new products and services as we expand into new markets, such as real estate and credit cards, and if our AI technology does not perform as well in these new markets as it has in our existing business and we are unable to manage the related risks and effectively execute our growth strategy as we enter into these new lines of business, our growth prospects, business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
Adverse developments affecting financial institutions, companies in the financial services industry or the financial services industry generally, such as actual events or concerns involving liquidity, defaults or non-performance, could adversely affect our operations and liquidity. Adverse developments affecting financial institutions, companies in the financial services industry or the financial services industry generally, such as actual events or concerns involving liquidity, defaults or non-performance, could adversely affect our operations and liquidity.
The failure of Silicon Valley Bank (“SVB”) as well as the recent turmoil in the banking industry may negatively impact our business, results of operations or financial condition. On March 10, 2023, the California Department of Financial Protection and Innovation closed SVB and appointed Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (the “FDIC”) receiver. On March 12, 2023, the New York State Department of Financial Services announced that Signature Bank was closed and the FDIC was appointed as receiver. Additionally, on March 12, 2023, the Department of the Treasury, the Federal Reserve, and the FDIC jointly released a statement that depositors at SVB and Signature Bank would have access to their funds, even those in excess of the standard FDIC insurance limits, under a systemic risk exception.
The fallout from these events across the global economy, and how it will impact other financial institutions, continues to unfold as of the date of this filing. With regard to SVB, our banking relationship as of March 10, 2023 was limited to an operating account with a balance of approximately $15.0 million, the Company’s Revolving Credit Facility and the Company’s Receivables Facility. These did not represent material exposure–however, we have prioritized the mitigation of any potential risk related to SVB. First, we were successfully able to withdraw the funds from the operating account and deposit them in accounts at other banks where we hold our primary banking relationships. And second, with regard to the Revolving Credit Facility, the Company has confirmed it continues to have access to the facility and has ensured the facility is still operational. And third, the Receivables Facility is unaffected.
We cannot, however, predict at this time to what extent our Partners, vendors and/or other third parties with whom we transact could be negatively impacted by these and other macroeconomic or geopolitical events. Therefore, although we have made arrangements to eliminate any direct risk to the Company with regard to SVB, our Partners, vendors and/or other third parties could be negatively impacted which could, in turn, affect our business, results of operations or financial condition.
Furthermore, despite our proactive measures and the measures taken by the United States federal government, there is uncertainty in the markets regarding the stability of regional banks and the safety of deposits in excess of the FDIC insured deposit limits. As of the date of this report, there are similar concerns developing with non-US banks. The ultimate outcome of these events, and whether further regulatory actions will be taken, cannot be predicted, but these events may have a material adverse effect on our liquidity and financial condition if our ability, and the ability of our Partners, vendors, and other third parties, to access funds at their respective financial institutions and our ability to transfer cash, cash equivalents and investments to another large institutional bank are impaired. Further, these events may make equity or debt financing more difficult to obtain, and additional equity or debt financing might not be available on reasonable terms, if at all; difficulties obtaining equity or debt financing could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, as well as our ability to continue to grow our operations.
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Our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected as a result of an unexpected failure of a vendor, bank or other third party service provider that presents concentration risks to us or our Partners. Our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected as a result of an unexpected failure of a vendor, bank or other third party service provider that presents concentration risks to us or our Partners.
We, as well as our Partners, are dependent on a number of third party service providers for our core business and operations, such as our data providers, technology service providers, financial institutions, and other third party service providers. Although our exposure to SVB was not material, and has nevertheless been mitigated, SVB’s recent failure highlights the risk that the failure of other financial institutions, or other third party service providers, could have a material impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations. If a third party on which we or our Partners depends fails to supply the required services, we may not be able to replace those services in a timely manner, on favorable terms, or at all. If we are unable to adequately diversify or otherwise mitigate such concentration risks and such risks come to pass, we could be subject to reduced revenues, increased expenses, or an inability to recover assets which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.
We are heavily dependent on our AI technology. If we are unable to continue to improve our AI technology or if our AI technology does not operate or perform as we expect, contains errors or is otherwise ineffective, our network may improperly evaluate products, not be able to process the volume we have historically, and our growth prospects, business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
Our ability to enable our Partners to increase the number and quality of loans or other assets that they originate with the assistance of our AI technology will depend in large part on our ability to effectively evaluate the creditworthiness and likelihood of default of our Partners’ customers and, based on that evaluation, help our Partners offer competitively-priced loans or other assets as well as obtain higher approval rates. Further, our overall operating efficiency and margins will depend in large part on our AI technology’s ability to effectively evaluate the creditworthiness, likelihood of default and credit asset pricing for our Partners’ customers, which will affect our Partners’ business volume. In the ordinary course, we enter into contractual arrangements with our Partners with customary indemnification provisions (including for violation of law). Such indemnification provisions potentially assume regulatory liability and liability for claims by Partners or third parties if the AI technology contains errors or incorrectly evaluates Partners’ customers. We further assume liability as the investment manager, sponsor and/or administrator for the Financing Vehicles, including if the AI technology contains errors or incorrectly evaluates the Partners’ customers underlying the assets purchased by the Financing Vehicles. Such liability may result in claims by asset investors or regulatory action. For more information, see “—If we fail to comply with or facilitate compliance with, or our Partners fail to comply with the variety of federal, state and local laws to which we or they are subject, including those related to consumer protection, consumer finance, lending, fair lending, data protection, and investment advisory services, or if we or our Partners are found to be operating without having obtained necessary state or local licenses, it may result in regulatory action, litigation, or monetary payments or may otherwise negatively impact our reputation, business, and results of operations, and may prevent us from serving users in jurisdictions where those regulations apply,” “—Risks Related to Our Legal and Regulatory Environment” and “—Any legal proceedings, investigations or claims against us could be costly and time-consuming to defend and could harm our reputation regardless of the outcome. In addition, our business and operations could be negatively affected if they become subject to any securities litigation or shareholder activism, which could cause us to incur significant expense, hinder execution of business and growth strategy and impact our share price.
In addition, we utilize the data gathered from various sources in our automated credit analysis process. The data that we gather is evaluated and curated by our AI technology. The ongoing development, maintenance and operation of our AI technology is expensive and complex, and may involve unforeseen difficulties including material performance problems, and undetected defects or errors, for example, with new or existing capabilities incorporating AI. We may encounter technical obstacles, and it is possible that we may discover additional problems that prevent our AI technology from operating properly. If our AI technology fails to adequately predict the creditworthiness of Partners’ applicants or customers, or to properly place loans or other assets for acquisition by Financing Vehicles due to the design of our models or programming or other errors or failures, other characteristics of our AI or for any other reasons, or any of the other components of the automated credit analysis process fails, our Partners and asset
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investors may experience higher than forecasted loan and other losses that will in turn negatively impact the performance of the Financing Vehicles that acquire our Partners’ assets. Additionally, errors or inaccuracies in our AI technology could result in exposure to the credit risk of loans or other assets originated by Partners, whether it be exposure for us, Partners or asset investors, which may result in higher than expected losses or lower than desired returns of such loans or other assets.
Any of the foregoing could result in our Partners experiencing sub-optimally priced assets, incorrect approvals or denials of transactions, or higher than expected losses, or could require remediation and/or result in our Partners’ dissatisfaction with us, which in turn could adversely affect our ability to attract new Partners or cause our Partners to terminate their agreements with us and decrease our Partners’ financial product volume, and could also negatively impact the performance of Financing Vehicles, certain asset investors’ willingness to invest in future Financing Vehicles, and our ability to continue to create new Financing Vehicles, our ability to source cost-effective capital in our Financing Vehicles and our business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.
We rely on our Partners to originate assets facilitated with the assistance of our AI technology. Currently, a limited number of Partners account for a substantial portion of the total number of their financial products facilitated with the assistance of our AI technology and, ultimately, our revenue. If these Partners were to cease or limit operations with us, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
Currently, a majority of the loans or other assets that are facilitated with the assistance of our AI technology result from transactions with a small number of Partners who operate in the financial technology space. These Partners, taken together, originate a majority of the loans or other assets facilitated with the assistance of our AI technology. The fees we receive when these loans or other assets are acquired from these Partners by Financing Vehicles account for a majority of our revenue.
We have entered into several types of agreements with each of our Partners. Our commercial arrangements with these Partners are generally nonexclusive and are based on the type of asset class. For example, we enter into purchase agreements with our Partners, which provide the Financing Vehicles with the opportunity to acquire assets by the Partner assisted by our AI technology, that have a typical duration of one to three years with the option to extend for additional periods. The Financing Vehicles are not required to acquire specific types or amounts of assets from our Partners under such agreements. In addition, there are servicing agreements with our Partners or third parties covering the assets originated by such Partners that typically last for the life of the asset. As it relates to any specific asset, these servicing agreements require us to continue to use the Partner or their preferred third party that originated the asset for the life of such asset. See ”—A disruption or failure in services provided by third parties could materially and adversely affect our business.” In addition, even during the term of our arrangement, our Partner could choose to reduce the volume of loans or other assets facilitated with the assistance of our AI technology or increase the volume that it chooses to fund and retain on its own balance sheet. We or any of our Partners may terminate our arrangement for various reasons, which may include material breaches and change in control, subject to payment of a termination fee in some cases, and Partners could decide to stop working with us, have disputes with us, ask to modify their commercial or legal terms in a manner disadvantageous to us or enter into exclusive or more favorable relationships with our competitors. In addition, capital and leverage requirements applicable to our Partners that are banks or other financial institutions subject to such requirements could result in decreased demand for our products. Further, our Partners’ respective regulators may require that they terminate or otherwise limit their business with us, or impose regulatory pressure limiting their ability to do business with us. We are a service provider to Partners, and due to some of our Partners be regulated by federal and/or state regulators, including the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (the “FDIC”), we are subject to audit by such Partners in accordance with the relevant guidance related to management of vendors. We are also subject to the examination and enforcement authority of certain of those regulators, including the FDIC under the Bank Service Company Act. If any of our Partners were to stop working with us, suspend, limit or cease their operations or otherwise terminate or modify adversely to us their relationship with us, the number of financial products originated by our Partners with the assistance of our AI technology could decrease, and our revenue and revenue growth rates and our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
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If we are unable to both retain existing Partners and attract and onboard new Partners on attractive commercial terms, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
A majority of our revenue is generated through fees we receive when the loans and other financial products originated by our Partners with the assistance of our AI technology are acquired by Financing Vehicles. Currently, we have a small number of Partners that operate in the financial technology space who originate a majority of these loans and other assets. To continue to expand our market share in existing markets and grow into new markets we will need to attract and onboard new Partners on attractive commercial terms and also maintain and grow those relationships. If we are not successful in retaining existing Partners and attracting and onboarding new Partners, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
Our ability to raise capital from asset investors is a vital component of the products we offer to Partners. If we are unable to raise capital from asset investors at competitive rates, or at all, it would materially reduce our revenue and cash flow and adversely affect our financial condition.
We have relied upon the securitization market and committed asset-backed facilities to provide a significant portion of the capital needed to purchase Partner assets selected/evaluated using our AI. The ability of the Financing Vehicles to provide funding at competitive rates, or at all, is essential to our business. Our ability to raise capital from asset investors for Financing Vehicles depends on a number of factors, including certain factors that are outside our control. Certain factors, such as the performance of the equity and bond markets and the asset allocation rules or investment policies to which such asset investors are then subject, could inhibit or restrict the ability of asset investors to make investments in Financing Vehicles or the asset classes in which Financing Vehicles invest.
An inability to access the securitization market, or a significant reduction in liquidity in the secondary market for securitization transactions, or access to the funding market at all could have an adverse impact on the funding component of our product, financial position and results of operations.
Our ability to launch new Financing Vehicles could similarly be hampered if the appeal of those investments in the market were to decline. For example, there is a risk that the single-family residence properties that we have invested in have some undiscovered flaw, or would otherwise require additional expenditures to make them rentable in excess of the expected amount, which could result in greater total renovation costs and a loss of revenue. Further, an investment in a share, unit, membership interest or limited partner interest in a Financing Vehicle is more illiquid, especially when the underlying assets (such as consumer credit assets) are illiquid, and the returns on such investment may be more volatile than an investment in securities for which there is a more active and transparent market. In periods of positive markets and low volatility, for example, investors may favor passive investment strategies such as index funds over our actively managed investment vehicles or more liquid assets like equities over consumer credit assets. Alternative investments could also fall into disfavor as a result of concerns about liquidity and short-term performance.
In connection with launching new Financing Vehicles or making further investments in existing Financing Vehicles, we may negotiate terms for such Financing Vehicles with existing and potential asset investors. The outcome of such negotiations could result in our agreement to terms that are materially less favorable to us than for prior Financing Vehicles or as compared to Financing Vehicles of our competitors, including requiring to have a greater share in the risk of loss with respect to fees and/or incentive fees, which could have an adverse impact on our revenues. Such terms could also restrict our ability to raise Financing Vehicles with investment objectives or strategies that compete with existing Financing Vehicles, add additional expenses and obligations for us or increase our potential liabilities, all of which could ultimately reduce our revenues. In addition, certain investors, including sovereign wealth funds and public pension funds, have demonstrated an increased preference for alternatives to the traditional Financing Vehicle structure. Such alternatives may not be as profitable for us as the traditional fund structure, and such a trend could have a material impact on the cost of our operations or profitability if we were to implement these alternative investment structures. In addition, certain investors, including public pension funds, have publicly criticized certain fee and expense structures, including transaction and advisory fees. Although we have no obligation to modify any of our fees with respect to our existing Financing Vehicles, we may experience pressure to do so in new Financing Vehicles.
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The fees paid to us by Financing Vehicles comprise a key portion of our revenues, and a reduction in these revenues could have an adverse effect on our results of operations. If we are unable to raise new and successor Financing Vehicles, the growth of the assets of such Financing Vehicles and related fees generated, our ability to deploy capital into investments and the potential for increasing our performance income would slow or decrease, all of which would materially reduce our revenues and cash flows and adversely affect our financial condition.
A key portion of our revenue from Financing Vehicles in any given period is dependent on the size of the assets of such Financing Vehicles in such period and fee rates charged. We may not be successful in producing investment returns and prioritizing services that will allow us to maintain our current fee structure, to maintain or grow the assets of such Financing Vehicles, or to generate performance income. A decline in the size or pace of the growth of assets of Financing Vehicles or applicable fee rates will reduce our revenues. A decline in the size or pace of the growth of the assets of Financing Vehicles or applicable fee rates may result from a range of factors, including:
Volatile and challenging economic and market conditions, such as global or regional economic downturns or recessions, as well as macroeconomic and policy impacts of political instability and armed conflicts, which could cause asset investors to delay making new commitments to existing or new Financing Vehicles, limit the ability of our existing Financing Vehicles to deploy capital or result in asset investors submitting redemption requests;
Competition may make fundraising and the deployment of capital more difficult, thereby limiting our ability to grow or maintain the assets of such Financing Vehicles;
Changes in our strategy or the terms of our network AI fees; and
Poor performance of one or more of the Financing Vehicles, either relative to market benchmarks or in absolute terms, or compared to our competitors, may cause asset investors to regard the Financing Vehicles less favorably than those of our competitors, thereby adversely affecting our ability to raise more capital for existing Financing Vehicles or new or successor Financing Vehicles, or result in asset investors submitting redemption requests.
If we are unable to develop and maintain diverse and robust funding sources for our network, our growth prospects, business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected. In addition, certain Financing Vehicles have periodic redemption features and a substantial withdrawal of capital by one or more asset investors, or use of such features, may have an adverse effect on the Financing Vehicles’ performance.
Our business depends on sourcing and maintaining diverse and robust funding to enable loans or other assets from our Partners to be acquired by a Financing Vehicle. The number of asset investors in new markets where a long-term track record of performance has not been developed is often very concentrated. Even for more mature markets, although the participating asset investors are often more diverse, only a limited number have committed or guaranteed their participation in existing Financing Vehicles. Were the availability of this funding to decrease, our ability to generate Network Volume and revenue will be adversely affected. Further, we have significant concentration in asset investors. Four of the largest asset investors together contributed approximately 57% of Network Capital during the 12 months ended December 31, 2022, compared to approximately 66% during the 12 months ended December 31, 2021. New capital from asset investors may be unavailable on reasonable terms or at all beyond the current maturity dates of Financing Vehicles.
Further, events of default or breaches of financial, performance or other covenants, or worse than expected performance of certain pools of obligations underpinning Financing Vehicles, could reduce the likelihood of affiliates sponsoring, managing or administering Financing Vehicles that acquire assets from our Partners. The performance of such assets is dependent on a number of factors, including the predictiveness of our AI technology and social and economic conditions. The availability and capacity of certain asset investors to participate in Financing Vehicles that acquire assets from our Partners also depend on many factors that are outside of our control, such as credit market volatility, politics and regulatory reforms. In the event of a sudden or unexpected disruption of asset investors’ participation in Financing Vehicles that acquire assets from our Partners, our network may not be able to maintain the necessary levels of funding to retain current volume of acquisition by Financing Vehicles of
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loans or other assets originated by our Partners without incurring substantially higher funding costs, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
A substantial withdrawal of capital by one or more asset investors in any Financing Vehicle with redemption features may have an adverse effect on such Financing Vehicle’s performance. We may find it difficult under such circumstances to adjust the Financing Vehicle’s asset allocation to the reduced amount of assets. Moreover, in order to provide sufficient funds to pay withdrawal amounts, the Financing Vehicles might be required to liquidate positions at an inopportune time or at prices that we believe do not reflect the true value of such investments and that would adversely affect the applicable asset investors, or the adviser may not be able to liquidate such positions at all or it may determine it would be inappropriate to do so. If such withdrawals of capital were to continue over a protracted period of time, these issues may be magnified such that similar assets sold at subsequent withdrawal dates might receive even less favorable liquidation values. Furthermore, if any of our Financing Vehicles decide to make in-kind distributions, satisfy redemptions in-kind whether through a distribution of a Financing Vehicle's assets or the distribution of interests in a vehicle (i.e., a special purpose vehicle) to which all or a portion of a Financing Vehicle's assets or interests have been transferred or by some other means, implement a gate or suspend redemptions, any of such actions may have an adverse reputational impact on our ability retain existing capital and/or raise new capital. Withdrawals of capital through redemption may also make it more difficult for such Financing Vehicles to generate the same level of profits operating on a smaller capital base and may trigger defaults, termination events or restrictive or financial covenants under one or more loans, credit facilities or other financing arrangements.
Our AI technology has not yet been extensively tested during different economic conditions, including down-cycles. We continue to build and refine our AI technology to offer new products and services as we expand into new markets, such as real estate and credit cards, and if our AI technology does not perform as well in these new markets as it has in our existing business and we are unable to manage the related risks and effectively execute our growth strategy as we enter into these new lines of business, our growth prospects, business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
We continue to build and refine our AI technology to offer new products and services in new markets, and we expect to continue to expand our offering to other markets. There are substantial risks and uncertainties associated with these efforts. We may invest significant time and resources to develop and market new lines of business and/or products and services and we may not achieve the return on our investment that we expect. Initial timetables for the introduction and development of new lines of business, new asset types or new products or services may not be achieved and price and profitability targets may not prove feasible. Further, we may not be able to develop, commercially market and achieve market acceptance of any new products and services. In addition, our investment of resources to develop new products and services may either be insufficient or result in expenses that are excessive in light of the revenue actually derived from these new products and services. If the profile of consumers using any new products and services is different from that of those currently served by our Partners’ existing financial products, our AI technology may not be able to accurately evaluate the credit risk of such customers, and the affiliates sponsoring, managing or administering Financing Vehicles that are acquiring our Partners’ financial products may in turn experience higher levels of delinquencies or defaults. Failure to accurately predict demand or growth with respect to our new products and services could have an adverse impact on our reputation and business, and there is always a risk that new products and services will be unprofitable, increase our costs, decrease operating margins or take longer than anticipated to achieve target margins. In addition, any new products or services may raise new and potentially complex regulatory compliance obligations, which would increase our costs and may cause us to change our business in unexpected ways. Further, our development efforts with respect to these initiatives could distract management from current operations and divert capital and other resources from our existing business.
Furthermore, our AI technology may not perform as well in the real estate asset market and non-consumer credit asset markets as it has in the consumer markets. For example, the use of our AI technology to evaluate and facilitate the acquisition, renovation, lease and eventual realization of real estate assets is significantly different than its application toward the evaluation and origination of loans and financial products, due to the special characteristics of the real estate market and the inherent uniqueness of these assets. The purchase price, renovation time and costs, attainable rent and appreciation potential of real estate assets are affected by numerous parameters that are often specific to each asset, and attempting to predict them through AI-based, big-data analytics is prone to
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error. While we have adapted and calibrated our AI technology to account for such parameters and their irregularity among individual assets, it may not be able to accurately predict the creditworthiness of each such asset and the outcome of its purchase, renovation, lease or future realization. Our strategic acquisition of Darwin in January 2023 is intended to bolster the capabilities of our technology, but we may not be able to effectively integrate or utilize the Darwin technologies to effectively reduce risks related to our real estate investment activities. See “—We may fail to successfully integrate Darwin into our existing operations and /or fail to fully realize all of the anticipated benefits, including enhanced revenue, earnings and cash flow from our acquisition which could have a significant and adverse impact on our SFR operations or the returns of certain Financing Vehicles.
In addition, while we believe our AI technology will accurately evaluate risk in the non-consumer credit asset markets, our AI technology has not been extensively tested in these markets. If our AI technology is unable to accurately evaluate risk in these markets, our Partners and Financing Vehicles through which asset investors invest may experience greater than expected losses on such loans or other assets, which would harm our reputation and erode the trust we have built with our Partners and asset investors. Any of these factors could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We may also have difficulty with securing the adequate participation of asset investors for Financing Vehicles investing in any such new financial products and services by our Partners, and if we are unable to do so, our ability to develop and grow these new offerings and services will be impaired. If we are unable to effectively manage the foregoing risks, our growth prospects, business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected. For example, in real estate investments, the yields available from properties depend on the amount of revenue generated and expenses incurred, and yields with credit card assets can be relatively low in the first few years after issuance as a result of factors including delayed interest generation, relatively high upfront losses, and significant acquisition costs (e.g., welcome bonus). If certain properties or assets do not generate sufficient revenues to meet their acquisition and operating expenses, a Financing Vehicle’s cash flow and ability to pay distributions to its asset investors will be adversely affected.
Further, if we do not successfully manage the regulatory, business and market risks associated with our expansion into new markets and new products and effectively execute our growth strategy in these new lines of business, our growth prospects, business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected. For example, the credit card market is highly complex, competitive and regulated. We continue to build and refine our AI technology to appropriately manage our credit card business, and if our AI technology does not perform as well in the credit card market as it has in our existing business and we are unable to manage the related risks and effectively execute our growth strategy, our growth prospects, business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
In addition, in 2021, Partners in our network began analyzing auto loans with the assistance of our AI technology to assist with their origination process for auto loans and acquisition of such loans by Financing Vehicles. We are continuing to invest in developing AI technology to support the origination of new financial products by our Partners and service offerings, such as credit cards, point-of-sale loans and the acquisition of such financial products by Financing Vehicles. New initiatives are inherently risky, as each involves unproven business strategies, addressing and complying with new regulatory requirements, industry expertise and new financial products and services with which we, and in some cases our Partners, have limited or no prior development or operating experience.
The industry in which we operate is highly competitive, and if we fail to compete effectively, we could experience price reductions, reduced margins or loss of revenues.
We operate in a highly competitive and dynamic industry. Our AI technology faces competition from a variety of players, including those that enable transactions and commerce via digital payments. Our primary competition consists of: other sources of consumer credit, including banks, non-bank lenders and other fintech networks, private equity firms, publicly traded financial technology companies, as well as a variety of technology companies that seek to help financial services providers with the digital transformation of their businesses and various “second-look” financing providers that offer lenders revenue when they approve applications that had otherwise been turned down. We expect competition to intensify in the future, both as emerging technologies continue to enter the marketplace
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and as large financial incumbents increasingly seek to innovate the services that they offer to compete with our network. Technological advances and the continued growth of e-commerce activities have increased consumers’ accessibility to more credit products and services and led to the expansion of competition in digital payment options that diminished the need for regular consumer credit such as pay-over-time solutions.
Some of our competitors are substantially larger than we are, which gives those competitors advantages we do not have, such as more diversified products, a broader Partner and investor base, the ability to reach more Partners and asset investors, the ability to cross-sell their financial products and cross-subsidize their offerings through their other business lines, operational efficiencies, more versatile technology networks, broad-based local distribution capabilities and lower-cost funding. In addition, because many of our competitors are large financial institutions that fund themselves through low-cost insured deposits and originate and own the assets they produce, they have certain revenue and funding opportunities unavailable to us. Our competitors may also have longer operating histories, more extensive and broader consumer and merchant relationships, and greater brand recognition and brand loyalty than we have. For example, more established companies that possess large, existing Partner and investor bases, substantial financial resources, larger marketing teams and established distribution channels could enter the market.
Increased competition could require us to alter the pricing and terms we offer to our Partners. If we are unable to successfully compete, the demand for our AI technology and products could stagnate or substantially decline, and we could fail to retain or grow the number of Partners using our network, which would reduce the attractiveness of our network to Partners, and which would materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and future prospects.
A significant portion of our current revenues are derived from Financing Vehicles that acquire consumer credit assets and related financial products, and as a result, we are particularly susceptible to fluctuations in consumer credit activity and the capital markets.
Currently, the majority of our Partners’ asset originations facilitated with the assistance of our AI technology are unsecured personal loans and also auto loans in the U.S. market. The market for unsecured personal loans has grown rapidly in recent years, and it is unclear to what extent such a market will continue to grow, if at all. A wide variety of factors could impact the market for unsecured personal loans, including macroeconomic conditions such as rising interest rates, rising inflation and changes in monetary policy, competition, regulatory developments and changes in consumer credit activity. For example, FICO has recently changed its methodology in calculating credit scores in a manner that potentially penalizes borrowers who take out personal loans to pay off or consolidate credit card debt. This change could negatively affect the overall demand for unsecured personal loans. The personal lending market has also benefited from historically low interest rates, as our Partners’ customers are attracted to relatively low borrowing costs.
The market for auto loans is sensitive to employment rates, prevailing interest rates and other domestic economic conditions, and it is unclear how rising interest rates or a recession may impact the growth of this market. Delinquencies, repossessions and losses generally increase during economic slowdowns or recessions. Because of our focus on sub-prime customers, the actual rates of delinquencies, repossessions and losses on our automobile contracts could be higher under adverse economic conditions than those experienced in the automobile finance industry in general. Furthermore, we may see a reduction in our overall recovery rates due to the volatility of wholesale auction prices leading to higher levels of losses. In addition, the ongoing supply chain limitations caused by the COVID-19 pandemic have continued to impact the pricing and availability of both new and used vehicles, which has resulted in volatility in vehicle pricing and credit terms available to consumers seeking auto loans. It is unclear when, and if, the supply chain impacts on the availability of vehicles will return to pre-pandemic conditions and how this will impact growth across the broader market for auto loans.
Our success will depend, in part, on the continued growth of the unsecured personal loan market and auto loan market in the U.S., and if these markets do not further grow, or grows more slowly than we expect, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
In addition, our Partners may, in the future, seek partnerships with competitors that are able to help them offer them a broader array of credit products, such as secured loans. Over time, in order to preserve and expand our
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relationships with our existing Partners, and enter into relationships with new Partners, it may become increasingly important for us to expand our offerings and be able to help our Partners offer a wider variety of products and services. We also may be susceptible to competitors that choose to offer higher yields to asset investors or offer to pay higher prices for loans or other assets acquired from our Partners. Competitors may elect to provide these incentives, even if they expect such pricing practices to lead to losses for them. Such practices by competitors could negatively affect the overall demand for personal loans facilitated with the assistance of our AI technology and, therefore, our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Further, the personal loans that are acquired from our Partners into Financing Vehicles are, for the most part, unsecured, and there is a risk that our Partners’ customers will not prioritize repayment of such loans, particularly in an economic downcycle. For example, if our Partners’ customers incur secured debt, such as a mortgage, a home equity line of credit or an auto loan, our Partners’ customers may choose to repay their obligations under such secured debt before repaying their unsecured loans, which could lead to higher default rates by our Partners’ customers with respect to their unsecured debt. This in turn could lead to losses for Financing Vehicles, which could lead to less demand from asset investors. If this leads to decreased demand by asset investors to participate in Financing Vehicles that acquire assets and other financial products facilitated with the assistance of our AI technology, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
If our estimates, judgments or assumptions relating to our critical accounting policies prove to be incorrect or financial reporting standards or interpretations change, our results of operations could be adversely affected.
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires our management to make estimates, judgments and assumptions that affect the amounts reported and disclosed in our consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. We base our estimates and assumptions on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances. The results of these estimates form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of certain assets, liabilities, and equity, and the amount of revenue and expenses that are not readily apparent from other sources. Significant assumptions and estimates used in preparing our consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes include those related to revenue recognition, consolidation of variable interest entities (each, “VIE”), fair value of certain assets and liabilities, share-based compensation, and income taxes, including any valuation allowance for deferred tax assets. Our results of operations may be adversely affected if our assumptions change or if actual circumstances differ from those in our assumptions, which could cause our results of operations to fall below the expectations of industry or financial analysts, which may result in a decline in the trading price of Class A Ordinary Shares.
Additionally, we regularly monitor our compliance with applicable financial reporting standards and review new pronouncements and drafts thereof that are relevant to us. As a result of new standards, or changes and challenges to existing standards or their interpretation, we might be required to change our accounting policies, alter our operational policies or implement new or enhance existing systems so that they reflect new or amended financial reporting standards, or we may be required to restate our published financial statements. Such changes or challenges to existing standards or in their interpretation may have an adverse effect on our reputation, business, financial condition, and profit and loss, or cause an adverse deviation from our revenue and operating profit and loss target, which may negatively impact our results of operations.
We are a young company with a limited operating history and there are no assurances our revenue and business model will continue to be viable as we grow and scale.
While we have grown significantly since our founding in 2016 there is no assurance that our revenue and business model, or any changes to our revenue and business model to better position us with respect to our competitors, will be successful. Our efforts to grow our business may be more costly than we expect, and we may not be able to increase our revenue sufficiently to offset our higher operating expenses. We may incur losses and not achieve future profitability or, if achieved, we may be unable to maintain such profitability, due to a number of reasons, including the risks described in this prospectus, unforeseen expenses, difficulties, complications and delays, differences between our assumptions and estimates and results, further deterioration in macroeconomic conditions and other unknown events.
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Our reputation and brand are important to our success. If we are unable to continue developing our reputation and brand, or if our brand or reputation is compromised, our ability to retain existing and attract new Partners and asset investors and our ability to maintain and improve our relationship with regulators of our industry could be adversely affected. As a result, our business, financial condition and results of operations may suffer.
We believe maintaining a strong brand and trustworthy reputation is critical to our success and our ability to attract new Partners and asset investors. Factors that affect our brand and reputation include, among other things: perceptions of AI, our industry and our Company, including the quality and reliability of our AI technology, the accuracy of our AI technology, perceptions regarding the application of AI to consumer lending or other markets specifically, the funding component of our business, privacy and security practices, litigation, regulatory activity, and the overall user experience of our Partners and their customers. Negative publicity, negative reviews or negative public perception of these factors, even if inaccurate, could adversely affect our brand and reputation.
Certain of the Partners’ arrangements have been criticized in government and media reports as “rent-a-charter” or “rent-a-bank” which has drawn the heightened attention of consumer advocacy groups, government officials and elected representatives. As a result, bank regulators have taken actions causing banks to exit third-party programs that the regulators determined involved unsafe and unsound practices.
Further, Federal and State regulators have continued to monitor, investigate, and implement both revised and new regulations for consumer credit products. While these regulators have primarily focused their attention on payday and “short-term, small-dollar” loans, they have looked more broadly to the use of AI technology in the origination of other consumer credit products including, but not limited to, potential claims regarding financial inclusion. Payday and “short-term, small dollar” loans are different from assets facilitated with the assistance of our AI technology, in our view. However, if we are nevertheless associated because of the heightened attention with such payday or short-term, small-dollar consumer loans, or if we are associated with increased criticism of non-payday loan programs involving relationships between bank originators and non-bank lending networks and program managers, or if regulatory scrutiny increases on the use of AI in our Partner’s origination practices, demand for loans or other assets could significantly decrease, which could cause our Partners to reduce their origination volumes or terminate their arrangements with us, impede our ability to attract new Partners or delay the onboarding of Partners, impede our ability to attract asset investors to participate in the funding component of our network or reduce the number of potential Partners that use our network. Any of the foregoing could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
We may also become subject to lawsuits, including class action lawsuits, or other challenges such as government investigations, inquiries, enforcement, or arbitration, against our Partners or us for obligations from our Partners through our AI technology. If there are changes in laws or in the interpretation or enforcement of existing laws affecting loans or other assets we place with the assistance of our AI technology, or if we become subject to such lawsuits, investigations or inquiries, our business, financial condition and results of operations would be adversely affected.
Harm to our reputation can also arise from many other sources, including employee and independent contractor or former employee and independent contractor misconduct, misconduct or negligence by outsourced service providers or other counterparties, failure by us or our Partners to meet minimum standards of service and quality, and inadequate protection of borrower information and compliance failures and claims. If we are unable to protect our reputation and brand, our business, financial condition and results of operations would be adversely affected.
If we are unable to manage the risks associated with fraudulent activity, our brand and reputation, business, financial condition, and results of operations could be adversely affected and we could face material legal, regulatory and financial exposure (including fines and other penalties).
Fraud is prevalent in the financial services industry and is likely to increase as perpetrators become more sophisticated. We are subject to the risk of fraudulent activity associated with our Partners’ customers and third parties handling our Partners’ borrower information and, in limited situations, cover certain fraud losses of Partners and asset investors. Fraud rates could also increase in a down-cycle economy. While we perform initial and ongoing due diligence on our Partners’ fraud prevention and detection policies and procedures, we rely on our Partners to
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predict and otherwise validate or authenticate applicant-reported data and data derived from third-party sources and notify us if any fraud is detected. If such efforts are insufficient to accurately detect and prevent fraud, the level of fraud-related losses of products could increase, which would decrease confidence in our AI technology. There have been some instances of fraud by Partners’ customers in the past which have generally occurred at the origination of the asset in the normal course of business and are not material to us. If any such fraud is identified, the applicable Partner is typically required to repurchase the related asset.
A failure to accurately detect and prevent fraud may also lead to increased costs if we have to invest in developing new technology to defend against fraud, which, in turn may lead to decreased returns in Financing Vehicles and therefore decreased returns for asset investors. In addition, our Partners and asset investors may not be able to recover amounts disbursed on products made in connection with inaccurate statements, omissions of fact or fraud, which could erode the trust in our brand and negatively impact our ability to attract new Partners and asset investors.
High profile fraudulent activity within the financial services industry also could negatively impact our brand and reputation. In addition, significant increases in fraudulent activity could lead to regulatory intervention, which could increase our costs and also negatively impact our brand and reputation. Further, if there is any increase in fraudulent activity that increases the need for human intervention in screening application data, the level of automation on our network could decline and negatively affect our unit economics. If we are unable to manage these risks, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
We are subject to risks related to our dependency on our Founders, key personnel, employees and independent contractors, including highly-skilled technical experts, as well as attracting, retaining and developing human capital in a highly competitive market.
Our success and future growth depend upon the continued services of our management team and other key employees and independent contractors, including highly-skilled technical experts. In particular, the Founders, who are members of our leadership team, are critical to our overall management, as well as the continued development of our products and services, our culture and our strategic direction. From time to time, there may be changes in our management team resulting from the hiring or departure of executives, key employees and independent contractors, which could disrupt our business. The loss of one or more members of our senior management or key employees or independent contractors could harm our business, and we may not be able to find adequate replacements. We may not be able to retain the services of any members of our senior management, key employees or independent contractors, including high-skilled technical experts. From time to time, we rely on temporary independent contractor programs to scale our operations team. Failure to effectively implement and manage such programs could result in misclassification or other employment related claims or inquiries by governmental agencies. In addition, to execute our growth plan, we must attract and retain highly qualified personnel, including engineering and data analytics personnel. Competition for highly skilled technical experts, including engineering and data analytics personnel, is extremely intense, particularly in Israel where we are headquartered. From time to time, we have experienced, and we expect to continue to experience, difficulty in hiring and retaining employees and independent contractors with appropriate qualifications. Many of the companies with which we compete for experienced personnel have greater resources than we have. In addition, prospective and existing employees and independent contractors often consider the value of the equity awards they receive in connection with their employment. If the perceived value of our equity awards declines, experiences significant volatility or increases such that prospective employees or independent contractors believe there is limited or less upside to the value of our equity awards, it may adversely affect our ability to recruit and retain key employees and independent contractors. In addition, our recent reduction in workforce, and any future reductions in workforce or other restructuring intended to improve operational efficiencies and operating costs, may adversely affect our ability to attract and retain employees. If we fail to attract new personnel or fail to retain and motivate our current personnel, our business and future growth prospects would be harmed. We generally enter into non-competition agreements with our employees and independent contractors. These agreements prohibit our employees and independent contractors, if they cease working for us, from competing directly with us or working for our competitors for a limited period. We may be unable to enforce these agreements under the laws of the jurisdictions in which our employees and independent contractors work, and it may be difficult for us to restrict our competitors from benefiting from the expertise our former employees and independent contractors developed while working for us.
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The funding component of our business related to the Financing Vehicles is highly competitive.
The funding component of our business is highly competitive, with competition based on a variety of factors, including macroeconomic conditions, investment performance, the quality of assets provided to asset investors, investor liquidity and willingness to invest, vehicle terms (including fees), brand recognition and business reputation. The funding component of our business competes with a number of other specialized investment funds, hedge funds, funds of hedge funds, other managing pools of capital, securitizations by our Partners or other consumer credit originators, as well as corporate buyers, traditional asset managers, commercial banks, investment banks and other financial institutions (including sovereign wealth funds), and we expect that funding sources may be limited as competition will continue to increase. For example, certain traditional asset managers have developed their own lending networks and are marketing other lending and credit strategies as alternatives to fund investments. Additionally, developments in financial technology, or fintech, such as distributed ledger technology, or blockchain, have the potential to disrupt the financial industry and change the way consumer lenders and other financial institutions do business. A number of factors serve to increase our competitive risks:
a number of our competitors in some of our businesses have greater financial, technical, marketing and other resources and more personnel than we do;
some Financing Vehicles may not perform as well as competitors’ Financing Vehicles or other available investment products;
several of our competitors have significant amounts of capital, and many of them have similar investment objectives to ours, which may create additional competition for investment opportunities and may reduce the size and duration of pricing inefficiencies that many alternative investment strategies seek to exploit;
some of our competitors may be subject to less regulation and accordingly may have more flexibility to undertake and execute certain investments, including in certain industries or businesses, than we can and/or bear less compliance expense than we do;
some of our competitors may have more flexibility than us in raising certain types of Financing Vehicles under the contracts or terms they have negotiated with their investors; and
some of our competitors may have higher risk tolerances, different risk assessments or lower return thresholds, which could allow them to consider a wider variety of investments and to bid more aggressively than us for investments that we want to make.
We have historically competed primarily on the basis of the performance of Financing Vehicles, and not on the level of our fees or incentive fees relative to those of our competitors. However, there is a risk that fees and incentive fees in the alternative investment or securitization industry will decline, without regard to our historical performance. Fee or incentive fee income reductions on existing or future Financing Vehicles, without corresponding decreases in our cost structure, would adversely affect our business and revenues.
Maintaining our reputation is critical to attracting and retaining asset investors and for maintaining our relationships with our regulators. Negative publicity regarding us, our personnel or our Partners could give rise to reputational risk that could significantly harm our existing business and business prospects. Similarly, events could occur that damage the reputation of our industry generally, such as the insolvency or bankruptcy of large funds or lending networks or a significant number of funds or lending networks or highly publicized incidents of fraud or other scandals, any one of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, regardless of whether any of those events directly relate to the Financing Vehicles or the investments made by Financing Vehicles.
In addition, the attractiveness of Financing Vehicles relative to investments in other investment products could decrease depending on economic conditions. Furthermore, any new or incremental regulatory measures for the U.S. financial services and lending industries may increase costs and create regulatory uncertainty and additional competition for many Financing Vehicles. See “—As the political and regulatory framework for AI technology and machine learning evolves, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.
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This competitive pressure could adversely affect our ability to make successful investments and limit our ability to raise future Financing Vehicles, either of which would adversely impact our business and revenues.
Our failure to deal appropriately with conflicts of interest in the funding component of our business, related to our allocation of investment opportunities between Financing Vehicles, could damage our reputation and adversely affect our businesses. Conflicts of interest may also arise in our allocation of costs and expenses, and we are subject to increased regulatory scrutiny and uncertainty with regard to those determinations.
As we have expanded and as we continue to expand the number and scope of our businesses, we increasingly confront potential conflicts of interest relating to the investment activities of the Financing Vehicles. Conflicts of interest continue to be a significant area of focus for regulators, investors and the media. Because of the variety of businesses and investment strategies that we pursue, we may face a higher degree of scrutiny compared with others that focus on fewer asset classes. We place assets across Financing Vehicles. In addition, certain Financing Vehicles may purchase an interest in one or more other Financing Vehicles. However, the risk that asset investors or regulators could challenge allocation decisions as inconsistent with our obligations under applicable law, governing agreements or our own policies cannot be eliminated. Further, the perception of non-compliance with such requirements or policies could harm our reputation with asset investors. A failure to appropriately deal with these, among other, potential conflicts, could negatively impact our reputation and ability to raise additional Financing Vehicles or result in potential litigation or regulatory action against us.
The investment activities or strategies used for certain Financing Vehicles may conflict with the transactions and strategies employed on behalf of other Financing Vehicles, and may affect the prices and availability of investments in which a Financing Vehicle may invest. Subject to any legal and regulatory obligations, the investment activities of our affiliates or a Financing Vehicle are carried out generally without reference to positions held by another Financing Vehicle and may have an effect on the value of the positions so held, or may result in an affiliate having an interest in an issuer adverse to that of a Financing Vehicle. Because the Financing Vehicles operate different businesses, the affiliates are subject to a number of potential and actual conflicts of interest, potentially greater regulatory oversight, and more legal and contractual restrictions than would be the case if the affiliates had only a single line of business.
In particular, Financing Vehicles may invest in the same types of assets in which the other Financing Vehicles currently invest and expect to continue to invest in the future. Although we anticipate that the Financing Vehicles will operate within a limited and defined set of parameters (e.g., time, scope and duration) when acquiring any such assets, a Financing Vehicle could encounter actual and potential conflicts to the extent that any such Financing Vehicle competes with others for investment opportunities or our resources (e.g., personnel). These activities can adversely affect the prices and availability of loans or other assets held by or potentially considered for purchase for the account of a Financing Vehicle.
Subject to the requirements of each Financing Vehicle’s governing documents, investment opportunities sourced by affiliates or Financing Vehicles will generally be placed among the accounts of the applicable Financing Vehicles in a manner that the applicable manager or sponsor believes to be appropriate given the factors that it believes to be relevant, such as each Financing Vehicle’s respective investment objectives, concentration limits, interest and asset coverage tests, collateral quality, liquidity and requirements tests, lender covenants, the amount of free cash each of them has available for investment, total capital and capital commitments, anticipated future cash flows and cash requirements, and other considerations and limitations of such Financing Vehicle.
We regularly make determinations to allocate costs and expenses both among Financing Vehicles and between such vehicles and their respective governing entities. Certain of those determinations are inherently subjective and virtually all of them are subject to regulatory oversight. Any determination or allegation of, or investigation into, a potential violation could cause reputational harm and a loss of investor confidence in our business. It could also result in regulatory lapses and applicable penalties, as well as increased regulatory oversight of our business. In addition, any determination to allocate fees to the applicable investment adviser or manager could negatively affect our net income, and ultimately decrease the value of our Class A Ordinary Shares and our dividends to our shareholders.
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We may need to raise additional funds in the future, including, but not limited to, through equity, debt, or convertible debt financings, to support business growth, and those funds may be unavailable on acceptable terms, or at all. As a result, we may be unable to meet our future capital requirements, which could limit our ability to grow and jeopardize our ability to continue our business.
We intend to continue to make investments to support our business growth and may require additional funds to respond to business challenges, including the need to develop new products and services, enhance our AI technology, scale and improve our operating infrastructure, or acquire complementary businesses and technologies. Accordingly, we may need to engage in equity, debt or convertible debt financings, or repurchase financings to secure additional funds. If we raise additional funds by issuing equity securities or securities convertible into equity securities, our shareholders may experience dilution. Debt financing, such as secured or unsecured borrowings, credit facilities or corporate bonds, may involve covenants restricting our operations or our ability to incur additional debt. Debt financing may also require “negative pledge” or security arrangements including, but not limited to, cash collateral agreements that restrict the availability of cash held as collateral which is the case for amounts we may borrow in the future under our existing credit agreement and other facilities. In addition, future equity financing or replacement or refinancing of any debt financings or repurchase financings may not be available on terms favorable to us or our shareholders, or at all, and the fact that debt holders are repaid first may reduce our ability to raise a later equity financing.
In addition, if the overall economy is negatively impacted for an extended period, our results of operations, financial position and cash flows may be materially adversely affected. A severe prolonged economic downturn could result in a variety of risks to the business, including weakening our ability to develop potential businesses and a decreased ability to raise additional capital when needed on acceptable terms, if at all. If we are unable to obtain adequate financing or financing on terms satisfactory to us when we require it, we may be unable to pursue certain business opportunities and our ability to continue to support our business growth and to respond to business challenges could be impaired and our business may be harmed. In addition, we may be unable to access capital to fund the purchases of additional products or other assets through raising new and successor Financing Vehicles. For additional information, see “—Our ability to raise capital from asset investors is a vital component of the products we offer to Partners. If we are unable to raise capital from asset investors at competitive rates, or at all, it would materially reduce our revenue and cash flow and adversely affect our financial condition.
Any legal proceedings, investigations or claims against us could be costly and time-consuming to defend and could harm our reputation regardless of the outcome. In addition, our business and operations could be negatively affected if they become subject to any securities litigation or shareholder activism, which could cause us to incur significant expense, hinder execution of business and growth strategy and impact our share price.
We are and may in the future become subject to legal proceedings, investigations and claims, including claims that arise in the ordinary course of business, such as claims brought by asset investors or Partners in connection with commercial disputes, claims by users, claims or investigations brought by regulators or employment claims made by our current or former employees and independent contractors. We are subject to claims in the ordinary course of business, including employment claims.
We are not currently a party to any pending or, to our knowledge, threatened litigation that will have a significant effect on our financial position or profitability. Any litigation, investigation or claim, whether meritorious or not, could harm our reputation, will increase our costs and may divert management’s attention, time and resources, which may in turn harm our business, financial condition and results of operations. Insurance might not cover such claims, might not provide sufficient payments to cover all the costs to resolve one or more such claims and might not continue to be available on terms acceptable to us. A claim brought against us for which we are uninsured or underinsured could result in unanticipated costs, potentially harming our business, financial position and results of operations.
In the past, following periods of volatility in the market price of a company’s securities, securities class action litigation has often been brought against that company. Shareholder activism, which could take many forms or arise in a variety of situations, as well as the frequency of lawsuits against special purpose acquisition company (“SPAC”) sponsors, has increased in recent years. Volatility in the share price of the Class A Ordinary Shares or other reasons
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may in the future cause it to become the target of securities litigation or shareholder activism. Securities litigation and shareholder activism, including potential proxy contests, could result in substantial costs and divert the attention and resources of management and the board of directors of Pagaya (“Pagaya Board”) from our business. Additionally, such securities litigation and shareholder activism could give rise to perceived uncertainties as to our future, adversely affect its relationships with service providers and make it more difficult to attract and retain qualified personnel. Also, we may be required to incur significant legal fees and other expenses related to any securities litigation and activist shareholder matters. Further, our share price could be subject to significant fluctuation or otherwise be adversely affected by the events, risks and uncertainties of any securities litigation and shareholder activism.
Although we currently maintain insurance coverage, such coverage may not be sufficient to cover the types or extent of claims or loss that may be incurred or received.
We currently maintain insurance in connection with our business, including, among other coverages, directors and officers liability insurance, errors and omissions/professional liability insurance, employment practices liability insurance, fiduciary liability insurance, and cyber insurance. The scope and limits of such insurance may not be sufficient to cover the types or extent of claims or loss that may be incurred or received. In addition, there may be risks for which we do not maintain or procure insurance coverage or for which the insurance coverage may not respond.
We are growing rapidly, and our insurance coverage may not be sufficient to protect us from any loss now or in the future and we may not be able to successfully claim our losses under our current insurance policies on a timely basis, or at all. Our inability to obtain and maintain appropriate insurance coverage could cause a substantial business disruption, adverse reputational impact, and regulatory scrutiny.
If we incur any loss that is not covered by our insurance policies, or the compensated amount is significantly less than our actual loss, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.
Our risk management policies and procedures, and those of our third-party vendors upon which we rely, may not be fully effective in identifying or mitigating risk exposure. If our policies and procedures do not adequately protect us from exposure to these risks, we may incur losses that would adversely affect our financial condition, reputation and market share.
We have developed risk management policies and procedures and we continue to refine them as we conduct our business. Many of our procedures involve oversight of third-party vendors that provide us with critical services such as information technology systems and infrastructure, portfolio management, custody, market data expenses and fund accounting and administration and pricing services. Our policies and procedures to identify, monitor and manage risks may not be fully effective in mitigating our risk exposure. Further, as we expand into new lines of business, our risk management policies and procedures may not be able to adequately keep up with our current rapid rate of expansion, and may not be adequate or sufficient to mitigate risks. Moreover, we are subject to the risks of errors and misconduct by our employees and independent contractors, including fraud and non-compliance with policies. These risks are difficult to detect in advance and deter, and could harm our business, results of operations or financial condition. Although we maintain insurance and use other traditional risk-shifting tools, such as third-party indemnification, to manage certain exposures, they are subject to terms such as deductibles, coinsurance, limits and policy exclusions, as well as risk of counterparty denial of coverage, default or insolvency. If our policies and procedures do not adequately protect us from exposure, and our exposure is not adequately covered by insurance or other risk-shifting tools, we may incur losses that would adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
If there is a pledge of a substantial amount of Pagaya Ordinary Shares, a change of control could occur and could materially and adversely affect our financial condition, results of operation and cash flows.
Shareholders that beneficially own a significant interest in Pagaya may pledge a substantial portion of Pagaya Ordinary Shares that they own to secure loans made to them by financial institutions. If a shareholder defaults on any of its obligations under these pledge agreements or the related loan documents, these financial institutions may
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have the right to sell the pledged shares, subject to the lock-up restrictions set forth in the Pagaya Articles. Such a sale could cause our share price to decline. Many of the occurrences that could result in a foreclosure of the pledged shares are out of our control and are unrelated to our operations. Because these shares may be pledged to secure loans, the occurrence of an event of default could result in a sale of pledged shares that could cause a change of control of Pagaya, even when such a change of control may not be in the best interests of our shareholders, and it could also result in a default under certain material contracts to which we are a party, which could materially and adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
We actively evaluate and consider potential strategic transactions, including acquisitions of, or investments in, businesses, technologies, services, products and other assets in the future. We may not be able to realize the potential benefits of any such future business investments or acquisitions, and we may not be able to successfully integrate acquisition targets, which could hurt our ability to grow our business.
We actively evaluate and consider potential strategic transactions, including acquisitions of, or investments in, businesses, technologies, services, products and other assets in the future. Acquisitions or investments involve significant challenges and risks and could impair our ability to grow our business or develop new products or expand into new markets and ultimately could have a negative impact on our financial results. If we pursue a particular transaction, we may limit our ability to enter into other transactions that could help us achieve our other strategic objectives. If we are unable to timely complete acquisitions, we may be unable to pursue other transactions, we may not be able to retain critical talent from the target company, technology may evolve and make the acquisition less attractive, and other changes can take place which could reduce the anticipated benefits of the transaction and negatively impact our business. Regulators could also impose conditions that reduce the ultimate value of our acquisitions. In addition, to the extent that our perceived ability to consummate acquisitions has been harmed, future acquisitions may be more difficult, complex or expensive.
Acquisitions may disrupt our ongoing operations, divert management from their primary responsibilities, subject us to additional liabilities, increase our expenses, subject us to increased regulatory requirements, cause adverse tax consequences or unfavorable accounting treatment, expose us to claims and disputes by shareholders and third parties, and adversely impact our business, financial condition, and results of operations. We may not successfully evaluate or utilize the acquired technology and accurately forecast the financial impact of an acquisition transaction, including accounting charges, and our due diligence processes may fail to identify significant issues with the assets or company in which we are investing or are acquiring. We may have to pay cash for any such acquisition which would limit other potential uses for our cash. If we incur debt to fund any such acquisition, such debt may subject us to material restrictions in our ability to conduct our business, result in increased fixed obligations, and subject us to covenants or other restrictions that would decrease our operational flexibility and impede our ability to manage our operations. If we issue a significant amount of equity securities in connection with future acquisitions, existing stockholders’ ownership would be diluted.
Risks Related to Technology, Intellectual Property and Data
Regulators may assert, and courts may conclude, that certain uses of AI technology leads to unintentional bias or discrimination.
Regulatory agencies have expressed concerns that certain AI technology may lead to unintentional bias or discrimination in an automated credit analysis process. Such concerns could subject us to legal or regulatory liability, reputational harm, and/or increase our legal and compliance expenses. For example, on March 29, 2021, the CFPB and the federal prudential bank regulators issued a “Request for Information and Comment on Financial Institutions’ Use of Artificial Intelligence, Including Machine Learning.” These regulators asked for comments regarding, among other things, whether the use of AI technology and machine learning in consumer credit underwriting can lead to bias and discrimination. A number of publicly submitted comments have asserted that AI technology and machine learning in consumer credit underwriting can lead to discrimination in violation of, inter alia, the Equal Credit Opportunity Act and the Fair Housing Act. This request for information process may lead to a regulatory rulemaking that could restrict the use of AI technology and machine learning in consumer credit underwriting. The CFPB recently announced that discrimination—intentional or unintentional but producing a
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discriminatory outcome—is an unfair, deceptive, or abusive act or practice (“UDAAP”) under the Consumer Financial Protection Act.
In conjunction with this update, the CFPB also announced changes to its supervision and examination manual for evaluating UDAAPs. The updated examination manual notes that discrimination may meet the criteria for “unfairness” by causing substantial harm to consumers that they cannot reasonably avoid and that harm is not outweighed by countervailing benefits to consumers. The Equal Credit Opportunity Act and the Fair Credit Reporting Act require creditors to provide consumers with the reasons for denial of credit or other adverse action, and providing such reasons can be more difficult given the complexity of certain AI technology. In addition, the Federal Trade Commission (“FTC”) has brought enforcement actions related to the use of AI and automated credit analysis in circumstances where the FTC has determined that the use of such tools is insufficiently transparent to consumers. Our inability to comply, and enable our Partners and their customers to comply, with the requirements of existing laws or new interpretations of existing laws, or new regulatory rulemaking that restricts the use of AI technology in consumer credit underwriting or other markets, could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations. We may also be obligated to indemnify Partners or pay substantial settlement costs in connection with any such claim or litigation related to the use of our AI technology and automated credit analysis, which could be costly. Even if we were to prevail in such a dispute, any litigation regarding our AI technology could be costly and time consuming and divert the attention of our management and key personnel from our business operations. The CFPB has, at times, taken expansive views of its authority to regulate consumer financial services, including non-bank providers of consumer financial products and services, creating uncertainty as to how the agency’s actions or the actions of any other new government agency could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We may be unable to sufficiently, and it may be difficult and costly to, obtain, maintain, protect, or enforce our intellectual property and other proprietary rights.
Our ability to operate our businesses depends, in part, upon our proprietary technology. We may be unable to protect our proprietary technology effectively, which would allow competitors to duplicate our AI technology and adversely affect our ability to compete with them. We rely on a limited combination of trade secret, trademark laws and other rights, as well as confidentiality procedures, contractual provisions and our information security infrastructure to protect our proprietary technology, processes and other intellectual property. The steps we take to protect our intellectual property rights may be inadequate. For example, a third party may attempt to reverse engineer or otherwise obtain and use our proprietary technology without our consent. The pursuit of a claim against a third party for infringement of our intellectual property could be costly, and any such efforts may not be successful. Our failure to secure, protect and enforce our intellectual property rights could adversely affect our brand and adversely impact our business.
Our proprietary technology, including our AI technology, may be alleged to infringe upon third-party intellectual property, and we may face intellectual property challenges from such other parties. We may not be successful in defending against any such challenges or in obtaining licenses to avoid or resolve any intellectual property disputes. If we are unsuccessful, such claim or litigation could result in a requirement that we pay significant damages or licensing fees, or we could in some circumstances be required to make changes to our business to avoid such infringement, which would negatively impact our financial performance. We may also be obligated to indemnify parties or pay substantial settlement costs, including royalty payments, in connection with any such claim or litigation and to modify applications or refund fees, which could be costly. Even if we were to prevail in such a dispute, any litigation regarding our intellectual property could be costly and time consuming and divert the attention of our management and key personnel from our business operations.
Moreover, it has become common in recent years for individuals and groups to purchase intellectual property assets for the sole purpose of making claims of infringement and attempting to extract settlements from companies such as ours. Even in instances where we believe that claims and allegations of intellectual property infringement against us are without merit, defending against such claims is time consuming and expensive and could result in the diversion of time and attention of our management, employees and independent contractors.
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In addition, although in some cases a third party may have agreed to indemnify us for such costs; such indemnifying party may refuse or be unable to uphold its contractual obligations. In other cases, our insurance may not cover potential claims of this type adequately or at all, and we may be required to pay monetary damages, which may be significant.
Furthermore, our technology may become obsolete or inadequate, and we may not be able to successfully develop, obtain or use new technologies to adapt our models and systems to compete with other technologies as they develop. If we cannot protect our proprietary technology from intellectual property challenges, or if our technology becomes obsolete or inadequate, our ability to maintain our model and systems or facilitate products could be adversely affected.
Our technology relies in part on third-party open-source software components, and failure to comply with the terms of the underlying open-source software licenses could restrict our ability to utilize our technology and increase our costs.
Our AI technology, including our computational infrastructure, relies on software licensed to us by third-party authors under “open-source” licenses. Some open-source licenses contain requirements that we make available source code for modifications or derivative works we create based upon the type of open-source software we use. If we combine our proprietary software with open-source software in a certain manner, we could, under certain open-source licenses, be required to release the source code of our proprietary software to the public. In addition, our ability to protect our proprietary intellectual property may, due to our reliance on open-source software, be limited. This would allow our competitors to create similar solutions with less development effort and time and ultimately put us at a competitive disadvantage. Although we monitor our use of open-source software to avoid subjecting our products to conditions we do not intend, the terms of many open-source licenses have not been interpreted by U.S. courts, and there is a risk that these licenses could be construed in a way that could impose unanticipated conditions or restrictions on our ability to commercialize our services. Moreover, our processes for controlling our use of open-source software may not be effective. If we are held to have breached the terms of an open-source software license, we could be required to seek licenses from third parties to continue operating our network on terms that are not economically favorable or feasible, to re-engineer our network or the supporting computational infrastructure to discontinue use of certain code, or to make generally available, in source code form, portions of our proprietary code.
Further, in addition to risks related to license requirements, use of certain open-source software carries greater technical and legal risks than does the use of third-party commercial software. For example, open-source software is generally provided as-is without any support or warranties or other contractual protections regarding infringement or the quality of the code, including the existence of security vulnerabilities. To the extent that our network depends upon the successful operation of open-source software, any undetected errors or defects in open-source software that we use could prevent the deployment or impair the functionality of our systems and harm our reputation. In addition, the public availability of such software may make it easier for attackers to target and compromise our network through cyberattacks. Any of the foregoing risks could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our proprietary AI technology relies in part on the use of our Partners’ borrower data and third-party data, and if we lose the ability to use such data, or if such data contains gaps or inaccuracies, our business could be adversely affected.
We rely on our proprietary AI technology, which includes statistical models built using a variety of datasets. Our AI technology relies on a wide variety of data sources, including data collected from our Partners’ customers and applicants, credit bureau data and our credit experience gained through monitoring the payment performance of our Partners’ customers over time. If we are unable to access and use data collected from our Partners’ customers and applicants, data received from credit bureaus, repayment data collected as part of the funding component of our network, or other third-party data used in our AI technology, or our access to such data is limited, our ability to accurately evaluate our Partners’ potential customers, detect fraud and verify applicant data would be compromised. Any of the foregoing could negatively impact the accuracy and effectiveness of our AI technology and the volume of products facilitated with the assistance of our network.
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Third-party data sources on which we rely include the consumer reporting agencies regulated by the CFPB and other data sources. Such data is electronically obtained from third parties and used in our AI technology to process our Partners’ applicants. Data from national credit bureaus and other consumer reporting agencies and other information that we receive from third parties about a Partner’s applicant or borrower, may be inaccurate or may not accurately reflect the applicant’s or borrower’s creditworthiness for a variety of reasons, including inaccurate reporting by creditors to the credit bureaus, errors, staleness or incompleteness.
In addition, if third-party data used to improve our AI technology or train the AI model is inaccurate, or access to such third-party data is limited or becomes unavailable to us, the efficacy of our AI technology and our ability to continue to improve our AI technology would be adversely affected. Any of the foregoing could, for our Partners, result in sub-optimally and inefficiently evaluated assets, incorrect evaluation of transactions, or higher than expected losses, which in turn could adversely affect our ability to attract new asset investors and Partners or increase our Partners’ volume of financial products and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Cyberattacks and security breaches of our technology, or those impacting our users or third parties, could adversely impact our brand and reputation and our business, operating results and financial condition.
We are dependent on information technology systems and infrastructure to operate our business. In the ordinary course of our business, we collect, process, transmit and store large amounts of sensitive information, including personal information, credit information and other sensitive data of our Partners’ customers and other consumers providing their data to a Partner. It is critical that we do so in a manner designed to maintain the confidentiality, integrity and availability of such sensitive information. We also have arrangements in place with certain of our third-party vendors that require us to share consumer information. We rely on third parties to assist in our operations, and as a result, we manage a number of third-party vendors that may have access to our computer networks and sensitive or confidential information. In addition, many of those third parties turn to subcontractors or rely on their own service providers in outsourcing some of their responsibilities. As a result, our information technology systems, including the functions of third parties that are involved or have access to those systems, are large and complex, with many points of entry and access. While all information technology operations are inherently vulnerable to inadvertent or intentional security breaches, incidents, attacks and exposures, the size, complexity, accessibility and distributed nature of our information technology systems, and the large amounts of sensitive information stored on those systems make such systems potentially vulnerable to unintentional or malicious, internal and external attacks. Vulnerabilities may be exploited from inadvertent or intentional actions of our employees, independent contractors, third-party service providers, Partners, asset investors or by malicious third parties that may result in actual or attempted unauthorized access, mishandling or misuse of information, computer viruses or malware, cyberattacks that could lead to unauthorized persons obtaining confidential information, destruction of data, disruption or deterioration of service, sabotaged or damaged systems, as well as distributed denial of service attacks, data breaches and other infiltration, exfiltration or other similar events. Attacks of this nature are increasing in their frequency, levels of persistence, sophistication and intensity, and are being conducted by sophisticated and organized groups and individuals with a wide range of motives (including, but not limited to, industrial espionage) and expertise, including organized criminal groups, “hacktivists,” nation states and others. In addition to the extraction of sensitive information, such attacks could include the deployment of harmful malware, ransomware, denial-of-service attacks, social engineering and other means to affect service reliability and threaten the confidentiality, integrity and availability of information and systems.
Further, an increase in employees working remotely could increase the risk of a security breach. Significant disruptions of our, our Partners’ and third-party service providers’ and/or other business partners’ information technology systems or other similar data security incidents could adversely affect our business operations and result in the loss, misappropriation, or unauthorized access, use or disclosure of, or the prevention of access to, sensitive information, which could result in financial, legal, regulatory, business and reputational harm to us. Our systems, policies and procedures may not be able to adequately keep up with our rapid expansion, and may not be adequate or sufficient to mitigate risks. In addition, many governments have enacted laws requiring companies to notify individuals of data security breaches involving their personal data. These mandatory disclosures regarding a security breach are costly to implement and often lead to widespread negative publicity following a breach, which may cause our Partners’ customers and potential customers to lose confidence in the effectiveness of our data security measures
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related to our AI technology and business. Any security breach, whether actual or perceived, would harm our reputation and ability to attract new Partners and asset investors.
In addition, similar vulnerabilities may arise in the future as we continue to expand the features and functionalities of our network and introduce new products and services on our network, and we expect to continue investing substantially to protect against security vulnerabilities and incidents.
Our Financing Vehicles rely on third-party service providers for a substantial portion of our business activities and for Financing Vehicles, and any disruption of service experienced by such third-party service providers or our failure to manage and maintain existing relationships or identify other high-quality, third-party service providers could harm our reputation, business, results of operations and growth prospects.
Our Financing Vehicles rely on a variety of third-party service providers in connection with a substantial portion of the operation of our business and Financing Vehicles. Any performance issues, errors, bugs or defects in third-party software or services could result in errors, defects or a failure of our solutions, which could materially and adversely affect our reputation, business, financial condition and results of operations. Many of our third-party service providers attempt to impose limitations on their liability for such performance issues, errors, bugs or defects, and if enforceable, we may have additional liability to our Partners, asset investors or to other third parties that could harm our reputation and increase our operating costs. Additionally, in the future, we might need to license other software or services to enhance our solutions and meet evolving Partner and asset investor demands and requirements, which may be unavailable to us on commercially reasonable terms or not at all. Any limitations on our ability to use or obtain third-party software or services could significantly increase our expenses and otherwise result in delays, a reduction in functionality or errors or failures of our solutions until equivalent technology or content is either developed by us or, if available, identified, obtained through purchase or licensed and integrated into our solutions, which could adversely affect our business. In addition, third-party software and services may expose us to increased risks, including risks associated with the integration of new technology, the diversion of resources from the development of our own proprietary technology and our inability to generate revenue from new technology sufficient to offset associated acquisition and maintenance costs, all of which may increase our expenses and materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. We will need to maintain our relationships with third-party service providers and obtain software and services from such providers that do not contain any material errors or defects. Any failure to do so could adversely affect our ability to deliver effective solutions to Partners and asset investors and adversely affect our business.
Under applicable employment laws, we may not be able to enforce covenants not to compete.
We generally enter into non-competition agreements as part of our employment agreements with our employees. These agreements generally prohibit our employees, if they cease working for us, from competing directly with us or working for our competitors, Partners or asset investors for a limited period. We may be unable to enforce these agreements under the laws of the jurisdictions in which our employees work and it may be difficult for us to restrict our competitors from benefiting from the expertise our former employees or consultants developed while working for us. For example, Israeli labor courts have required employers seeking to enforce non-compete undertakings of a former employee to demonstrate that the competitive activities of the former employee will harm one of a limited number of material interests of the employer which have been recognized by the courts, such as the protection of a company’s trade secrets or other proprietary knowhow.
Risks Related to our Single Family Rental (“SFR”) Operations
We may fail to successfully integrate Darwin into our existing operations and /or fail to fully realize all of the anticipated benefits, including enhanced revenue, earnings and cash flow from our acquisition which could have a significant and adverse impact on our SFR operations or the returns of certain Financing Vehicles.
In January 2023, we completed the acquisition of Darwin to further develop our real estate investment line of business. The acquisition of Darwin will involve the integration of the technology, operations, and personnel of Darwin into our existing operations, and there are uncertainties inherent in such an integration. We will be required to devote significant management attention and resources to integrating Darwin’s operations. We believe this strategic acquisition of Darwin could be impactful to our financial condition and results of operations, but there can
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be no guarantee that they will result in the intended benefits to our business, and we may not successfully evaluate or utilize the acquired business, products, or technology, or be able to accurately forecast the financial impact of this strategic acquisition. In addition, integrating an acquired company, business or technology is risky and may result in unforeseen operating difficulties and expenditures, particularly in new markets or with respect to new adjacent services. As part of the purchase accounting associated with the acquisition, significant goodwill and intangible asset balances were recorded on the consolidated balance sheet. If cash flows from the acquisition fall short of our anticipated amounts, these assets could be subject to non-cash impairment charges, negatively impacting our earnings. Failure to successfully integrate Darwin and / or realize the anticipated benefits could have a significant and adverse impact on our SFR operations or the returns of certain Financing Vehicles.
Our failure to address risks or other problems encountered in connection with this strategic acquisition could cause us to fail to realize the anticipated benefits of such strategic acquisitions, incur unanticipated liabilities, and harm our business, financial condition and results of our SFR operations, as well as negatively impact certain of our Financing Vehicles.
If we fail to continuously innovate, improve and expand the technology we use in our SFR operations, namely our AI platform and Darwin’s property management platform, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be negatively impacted.
Our success depends on our ability to continuously innovate and improve our platforms to provide value to our investors, our real estate customers, and their tenants. As a result, we have invested and plan to continue to invest significant resources in research and development to improve and maintain our platforms and support our technology infrastructure. Our investments in our platforms allow us to provide an expanded suite of technology offerings, which we believe separate us from our competitors. However, there can be no guarantee that in the future we can continue to launch new products and services in a timely manner, or at all. Even if we do launch new products and services, they might not be utilized by our real estate customers and tenants at the rate we expect, or at all. Although we believe these investments help our real estate customers succeed, there can be no guarantee that we will retain our real estate customers across the markets we serve, nor that our investments will lead to increased utilization of our platforms or that increased utilization of our platforms will drive increased productivity or revenues for us. Additionally, we may expand our technology offerings by acquiring additional real estate technology companies. Although we think these strategic acquisitions could expand our capabilities into critical components of the transaction, our customers may not value these additions and may not utilize them at the rate we expect, which may negatively impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The financial success of our SFR operations will depend on our ability to continue to anticipate the needs of owners of single-family rental real estate and to successfully develop and introduce new and upgraded services.
To be successful, we must be able to quickly adapt to changes in the single-family rental real estate industry, as well as rapid technological changes by continually enhancing our information, analytics and online management. As a result, we must continually invest resources in research and development to improve the appeal and comprehensiveness of our services and effectively incorporate new technologies. Developing new services and upgrades to services, as well as integrating and coordinating current services, imposes heavy burdens on our systems department, product development team, management and researchers. The processes are costly and our efforts to develop, integrate and enhance our services may not be successful. If we are unsuccessful in obtaining greater market share or in obtaining widespread adoption of new or upgraded services, we may not be able to offset the expenses associated with the development, launch and marketing of the new or upgraded service. In addition, as we integrate acquired businesses, we continue to assess which services we believe will best meet the needs of our customers. If we eliminate or phase out a service and are not able to offer and successfully market and sell an alternative service, our revenue may decrease. Finally, a downturn in demand for single-family rental real estate may have a pronounced effect on our SFR operations.
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The SFR market is highly competitive, and we may be unable to compete successfully against our existing and future competitors.
The SFR market is competitive and fragmented, and we expect competition to continue to increase. The success of our SFR operations depend on our ability to continue to attract customers to our platform, and to enhance their engagement in a cost effective manner. We face competition on a national level and in each of our markets from traditional real estate management firms and traditional real estate agents, some of which operate nationally and others that are limited to a specific region or regions. We also face competition from real estate technology companies, including a growing number of internet based brokerages and others who operate with a variety of business models.
New entrants, particularly smaller companies offering point solutions, continue to join our market categories. However, our existing and potential competitors include real estate technology companies and real estate brokerage firms and management companies that operate, or could develop, national and/or local businesses offering similar services, including real estate brokerage and management services, to home buyers or sellers or institutional owners. Several of these real estate companies which may enter our market categories could have significant competitive advantages, including better name recognition, greater resources, lower cost of funds and additional access to capital, and more types of offerings than we currently do. These companies may also have higher risk tolerances or different risk assessments than we do. In addition, these competitors could devote greater financial, technical and other resources than we have available to develop, grow or improve their businesses.
The success of our SFR operations depends on general economic conditions, the health of the U.S. real estate industry generally, and risks generally incident to the ownership and leasing of single-family residential real estate, and our SFR operations may be negatively impacted by economic and industry downturns, including seasonal and cyclical trends, and volatility in the single-family residential real estate lease market.
Our success is impacted, directly and indirectly, by general economic conditions, the health of the U.S. real estate industry and the markets in which we operate, and risks generally incident to the ownership and leasing of residential real estate, many of which are beyond our control. Our business could be harmed by a number of factors that could impact the conditions of the U.S. real estate industry, as well as the markets that we operate in, including:
a period of slow economic growth or recessionary conditions;
volatility in the residential real estate industry;
insufficient or excessive single-family home inventory levels by market or price points;
increasing mortgage rates and down payment requirements or constraints on the availability of mortgage financing;
a low level of consumer confidence in the economy or the single-family residential real estate market due to macroeconomic events domestically or internationally;
weak credit markets;
instability of financial institutions;
legislative or regulatory changes (including changes in regulatory interpretations or regulatory practices) that would adversely impact the single-family residential real estate market as well as federal and/or state income tax changes and other tax reform affecting real estate and/or real estate transactions;
insufficient or excessive regional single-family home inventory levels;
adverse changes in local, regional, or national economic conditions;
the inability or unwillingness of consumers to enter into single-family residential lease transactions;
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a decrease in the affordability of homes including the impact of rising mortgage rates, home price appreciation and wage stagnation or wage increases that do not keep pace with inflation;
increasing home ownership rates, declining demand for real estate and changing social attitudes toward home ownership; and
natural disasters, such as hurricanes, earthquakes and other events (including pandemics and epidemics) that disrupt local or regional real estate markets.
As our SFR revenue is driven in part by leasing and property management of single-family residential real estate and the sale of such properties, any slowdown or decrease in the total number of single-family residential real estate lease transactions for any of the above reasons could adversely affect our SFR operations.
The single-family residential real estate market historically has also been seasonal, with greater demand in the spring and summer, and typically weaker demand in late fall and winter, resulting in fluctuations in the quantity, speed and price of transactions on our platform and lease activity.
In addition, our investments are and will continue to be concentrated in our existing and target markets and in the single-family residential leasing sector of the real estate industry. A downturn or slowdown in the rental demand for single-family housing caused by adverse economic, regulatory, or environmental conditions, or other events, in our markets may have a greater impact on our SFR operating results than if we had more fully diversified portfolio of SFR Partners and properties.
Our SFR Partners depend on residents and their willingness to meet their lease obligations and renew their leases. Poor tenant selection, defaults, and non-renewals by residents may adversely affect our reputation and the financial performance of our SFR operations.
Our SFR Partners depend on rental income from residents. As a result, the success of our SFR operations depends in large part upon the ability to attract and retain qualified residents for our customers’ properties. Our reputation and financial performance would be adversely affected if a significant number of residents fail to meet their lease obligations or fail to renew their leases. For example, residents may default on rent payments, make unreasonable and repeated demands for service or improvements, make unsupported or unjustified complaints to regulatory or political authorities, use properties for illegal purposes, damage or make unauthorized structural changes to properties that are not covered by security deposits, refuse to leave the property upon termination of the lease, engage in domestic violence or similar disturbances, disturb nearby residents with noise, trash, odors, or eyesores, fail to comply with Home Owner Association (“HOA”) regulations, sublet to less desirable individuals in violation of our lease, or permit unauthorized persons to live with them. Furthermore, entities directed by, or notionally affiliated with, the federal government as well as some state and local jurisdictions across the United States have from time to time imposed temporary eviction moratoriums if certain criteria are met by residents, which allows residents to defer missed rent payments without incurring late fees, and in certain cases prohibit rent increases. Jurisdictions and other local and national authorities may expand or extend measures imposing restrictions on our ability to enforce residents’ contractual rental obligations and limiting our ability to increase rents.
Damage to properties may delay releasing after eviction, necessitate expensive repairs, or impair the rental income or value of the property resulting in a lower than expected rate of return for our services. Increases in unemployment levels and other adverse changes in economic conditions in our markets could result in substantial resident defaults. In the event of a resident default or bankruptcy, we could experience delays in receiving revenue for our services and re leasing the property.
A significant number of our SFR Partners’ residential properties are part of HOAs and we and our residents are subject to the rules and regulations of such HOAs, which are subject to change and which may be arbitrary or restrictive, and violations of such rules may subject us to additional fees and penalties and litigation with such HOAs, which would be costly.
A significant number of our SFR Partners’ properties are located within HOAs, which are private entities that regulate the activities of owners and occupants of, and levy assessments on, properties in a residential subdivision.
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The HOAs in which our customers own properties may have enacted or may from time to time enact onerous or arbitrary rules that restrict our ability to restore, market, lease, or operate our properties, or require us to restore or maintain such properties at standards or costs that are in excess of planned budgets.
Some HOAs impose limits on the number of property owners who may lease their homes, which, if met or exceeded, would cause us to incur additional costs to sell the property and opportunity costs from lost rental revenue. Additionally, the governing bodies of the HOAs in which our SFR Partners own property may not make important disclosures about the properties or may block access to HOA records, initiate litigation, restrict the ability to sell our customers’ properties, impose assessments, or arbitrarily change the HOA rules. Our SFR Partners may be unaware of or unable to review or comply with HOA rules before purchasing a property, and any such excessively restrictive or arbitrary regulations may cause them to sell such property at a loss, prevent them from leasing such property, or otherwise reduce their cash flow from such property, which would have an adverse effect on our SFR operations. Several states have enacted laws that provide that a lien for unpaid monies owed to an HOA may be senior to or extinguish mortgage liens on properties. Such actions, if not cured, may give rise to events of default under certain of our customers’ indebtedness, which could have an adverse impact on our SFR operations.
Our dependence upon third parties for key services may have an adverse effect on our operating results or reputation if the third parties fail to perform.
Though we are internally managed, we use local and national third party vendors and service providers to provide certain services for our SFR Partners’ properties. For example, we typically engage third party home improvement professionals with respect to certain maintenance and specialty services, such as HVAC, roofing, painting, and floor installations. Selecting, managing, and supervising these third party service providers requires significant resources and expertise, and because our portfolio consists of geographically dispersed properties, our ability to adequately select, manage, and supervise such third parties may be more limited or subject to greater inefficiencies than if our properties were more geographically concentrated. An overall labor shortage experienced by our vendors, lack of skilled labor, increased turnover, or labor inflation, caused by COVID-19 or as a result of general macroeconomic factors, could have a material adverse impact on our SFR operations.
With regard to property management, our Financing Vehicles rely heavily on third party property managers and their respective affiliates to provide property management, acquisition, rehabilitation and other services for the portfolios of single-family rental properties. There can be no assurance that the third-party property management firms employed by certain Financing Vehicles will be able to operate each investment successfully. Moreover, the risks of dependence on third-party property management firms are different by property type and by investment stage (for example, properties in development or redevelopment have a greater dependence on the leasing abilities of a third-party manager or leasing agent). Property managers may receive fees based upon gross revenues and such fee arrangements may create an incentive for the relevant investment to be managed in a manner that is not consistent with the applicable Financing Vehicle’s objectives.
In addition, we rely on the systems of our third party service providers, their ability to perform key operations on our behalf in a timely manner and in accordance with agreed levels of service, and their ability to attract and retain sufficient qualified associates to perform our work. A failure in the systems of one of our third party service providers, or their inability to perform in accordance with the terms of our contracts or to retain sufficient qualified associates, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, and financial condition.
Notwithstanding our efforts to implement and enforce strong policies and practices regarding service providers, we may not successfully detect and prevent fraud, misconduct, incompetence, or theft by our third party service providers. In addition, any removal or termination of third party service providers would require us to seek new vendors or providers, which would create delays and adversely affect our operations. Poor performance by such third party service providers may reflect poorly on us and could significantly damage our reputation. In the event of fraud or misconduct by a third party, we could also be exposed to material liability and be held responsible for damages, fines, or penalties and our reputation may suffer. In the event of failure by our general contractors to pay their subcontractors, our properties may be subject to filings of mechanics or materialmen liens, which we may need to resolve to remain in compliance with certain debt covenants, and for which indemnification from the general contractors may not be available.
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We rely on information supplied by prospective residents in managing our business.
Through a combination of third parties and our own analysis, a resident screening process is performed, including obtaining appropriate identification, a thorough evaluation of credit history and household income, a review of the applicant’s rental history, and a background check for criminal activity. Leasing decisions are made based on information in rental applications completed by a prospective resident and screened by our third-party partner, and we cannot be certain that this information is accurate. Additionally, these applications are submitted to us at the time of evaluation of a prospective resident, and we do not require residents to provide us with updated information during the terms of their leases, notwithstanding the fact that this information can, and frequently does, change over time. For example, increases in unemployment levels or adverse economic conditions in certain of our markets may adversely affect the creditworthiness of our residents in such markets. Even though this information is not updated, we will use it to evaluate the characteristics of our customers’ portfolio over time. If resident supplied information is inaccurate or our residents’ creditworthiness declines over time, our customers may make poor or imperfect leasing decisions and revenue generated by our customers’ portfolios may contain more risk than we believe.
We are subject to payment-related and leasing fraud from tenants and an increase in or failure to deal effectively with fraud, fraudulent activities, fictitious transactions, or illegal transactions.
Darwin’s property management platform processes a significant volume and dollar value of transactions on a daily basis. When renters do not fulfill their obligations we have incurred and will continue to incur losses from claims by customers, and these losses may be substantial. Such instances have and can lead to the reversal of payments received by us for such bookings, referred to as a “chargeback.” Our ability to detect and combat fraudulent schemes, which have become increasingly common and sophisticated, could be adversely impacted by the adoption of new payment methods, the emergence and innovation of new technology platforms, including mobile and other devices, and our growth in certain regions, including in regions with a history of elevated fraudulent activity. We expect that technically knowledgeable criminals will continue to attempt to circumvent our anti-fraud systems. In addition, the payment card networks have rules around acceptable chargeback ratios. If we are unable to effectively combat fraud on Darwin’s property management platform, combat the use of fraudulent or stolen credit cards, or otherwise maintain or lower our current levels of charge backs, we may be subject to fines and higher transaction fees or be unable to continue to accept card payments because payment card networks have revoked our access to their networks, any of which could adversely impact our SFR operations.
Our payments platform is susceptible to potentially illegal or improper uses, including money laundering, transactions in violation of economic and trade sanctions, corruption and bribery, terrorist financing, fraudulent listings, customer account takeovers, or the facilitation of other illegal activity. Use of our payments platform for illegal or improper uses has subjected us, and may subject us in the future, to claims, lawsuits, and government and regulatory investigations, inquiries, or requests, which could result in liability and reputational harm for us. We have taken measures to detect and reduce fraud and illegal activities, but these measures need to be continually improved and may add friction to our booking process. These measures may also not be effective against fraud and illegal activities, particularly new and continually evolving forms of circumvention. If these measures do not succeed in reducing fraud, our SFR operations could be adversely affected.
Vacant properties could be difficult to lease, which could adversely affect our SFR operations.
The properties our SFR Partners acquire may often be vacant at the time of closing, and our customers may acquire multiple vacant properties in close geographic proximity to one another. They may not be successful in locating residents to lease the individual properties as quickly as they had expected, or at all. Even if they are able to place residents as quickly as they had expected, they may incur vacancies in the future and may not be able to re-lease those properties without longer than assumed delays, which may result in increased renovation and maintenance costs and opportunity costs. Vacant homes may also be at risk for fraudulent activity which could impact our customers’ ability to lease a home. As a result, if vacancies continue for a longer period of time than we expect or indefinitely, our customers may incur additional operating expenses and capital expenditures, and their homes could be substantially impaired, all of which may have a material effect on our SFR operations.
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We may not be able to effectively control the timing and costs relating to the renovation and maintenance of our properties, which may adversely affect our SFR operations.
Nearly all of our SFR Partners’ properties require some level of renovation either immediately upon their acquisition or in the future following expiration of a lease or otherwise. Our customers may acquire properties that they plan to renovate extensively. They may also acquire properties that they expect to be in good condition only to discover unforeseen defects and problems that require extensive renovation and capital expenditures. To the extent properties are leased to existing residents, renovations may be postponed until the resident vacates the premises, and our customers will pay the costs of renovating. In addition, from time to time, our SFR Partners may perform ongoing maintenance or make ongoing capital improvements and replacements and perform significant renovations and repairs that resident deposits and insurance may not cover.
Our customers’ properties have infrastructure and appliances of varying ages and conditions. Consequently, independent contractors and trade professionals are routinely retained to perform physical repair work and are exposed to all of the risks inherent in property renovation and maintenance, including potential cost overruns, increases in labor and materials costs, delays by contractors in completing work, delays in the timing of receiving necessary work permits, delays in receiving materials, fixtures, or appliances, certificates of occupancy, and poor workmanship. If our assumptions regarding the costs or timing of renovation and maintenance across our SFR Partners’ properties prove to be materially inaccurate, our SFR operations may be adversely affected.
We may not have control over timing and costs arising from renovating our customers’ properties, and the cost of maintaining rental properties is generally higher than the cost of maintaining owner-occupied homes, which may affect the results of our SFR operations.
Renters impose additional risks to owning real property. Renters do not have the same interest as an owner in maintaining a property and its contents and generally do not participate in any appreciation of the property. Accordingly, renters may damage a property and its contents, and may not be forthright in reporting damages or amenable to repairing them completely, or at all. A rental property may need repairs and/or improvements after each resident vacates the premises, the costs of which may exceed any security deposit provided by the resident when the rental property was originally leased. Accordingly, the cost of maintaining rental properties can be higher than the cost of maintaining owner-occupied homes, which may adversely affect our SFR operations.
The SFR marketplace faces significant competition with larger established players.
We may not be able to compete successfully against existing or future competitors, which could harm our SFR operations. We compete to attract tenants and customers who use Darwin’s platform. Our competitors may have greater brand recognition or more direct sales personnel than we have, which may provide them with competitive advantages. Pressure from competitors seeking to acquire a greater share of our tenant and customer market share could adversely affect our pricing and margins, lower our revenue and increase our research and development and marketing expenses. If we are unable to compete successfully against our existing or future competitors, our SFR operations could be adversely affected.
Our SFR Partners face significant competition in the leasing market for quality residents, which may limit the ability to lease our single-family homes on favorable terms.
Our SFR Partners’ success, and therefore our SFR operations success, depends in large part upon the ability to attract and retain qualified residents for our SFR Partners’ properties. Our customers face competition for residents from other lessors of single-family properties, apartment buildings, and condominium units. Competing properties may be newer, better located, and more attractive to residents. Potential competitors may have lower rates of occupancy than our customers do or may have superior access to capital and other resources, which may result in competing owners more easily locating residents and leasing available housing at lower rental rates than our customers might offer. Many of these competitors may successfully attract residents with better incentives and amenities, which could adversely affect our customers’ ability to obtain quality residents and lease their single family properties on favorable terms. Additionally, some competing housing options may qualify for government subsidies that may make such options more accessible and therefore more attractive than our customers’ properties.
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This competition may affect our customers’ ability to attract and retain residents and may reduce the rental rates they are able to charge.
In addition, our customers could also be adversely affected by overbuilding or high vacancy rates of homes in their markets, which could result in an excess supply of homes and reduce occupancy and rental rates. Continuing development of apartment buildings and condominium units in many of our markets will increase the supply of housing and exacerbate competition for residents.
Laws, regulations, and rules that affect the short-term rental and the long-term rental business may expose us to significant penalties, which could have an adverse effect on our SFR operations.
There have been and continue to be legal and regulatory developments that affect the short-term rental and long-term rental of single-family residences and buying and selling real estate. Private groups, such as homeowners, landlords, and condominium and neighborhood associations, have adopted contracts or regulations that purport to ban or otherwise restrict single-family residential rentals, and third-party lease agreements between landlords and tenants, home insurance policies, and mortgages may prevent or restrict the ability of our customers to list their spaces. These groups and others cite concerns around affordable housing, among other issues, and some state and local governments have implemented or considered implementing rules, ordinances, or regulations governing the short-term or long-term rental of properties. Legislation in other regions also could have a material impact on the way short-term and long-term rentals are regulated. Such regulations include ordinances that restrict or ban our SFR Partners from short-term rentals, long-term rentals, set annual caps on the number of days customers can lease their homes, require customers to register with the municipality or city, or require customers to obtain permission before offering short-term rentals. Macroeconomic pressures and public policy concerns could also lead to new laws and regulations, or interpretations of existing laws and regulations, or widespread enforcement actions that limit the ability of our customers to lease their single-family residences. If laws, regulations, rules, or agreements significantly restrict or discourage our customers in certain jurisdictions from leasing their properties, it could have an adverse effect on our SFR operations.
Compliance with governmental laws, regulations, and covenants that are applicable to our SFR Partners’ properties or that may be passed in the future, including affordability covenants, permit, license, and zoning requirements, may adversely affect our ability to manage customer properties and could adversely affect our growth strategy.
Rental homes are subject to various federal, state, and local laws and regulatory requirements, including permitting, licensing, and zoning requirements. Local regulations, including municipal or local ordinances, restrictions, and restrictive covenants imposed by community developers may restrict the use of our customers’ properties and may require us to obtain approval from local officials or community standards organizations at any time with respect to our properties. Among other things, these restrictions may relate to fire and safety, seismic, asbestos cleanup, or hazardous material abatement requirements. Such local regulations may cause our SFR Partners to incur additional costs to renovate or maintain their properties in accordance with the particular rules and regulations, which could affect the desirability of owning investment properties. Additionally, state and local agencies may place affordability covenants on certain properties to ensure that they are used to provide affordable housing for persons or families of lower income.
Tenant relief laws, including laws regulating evictions, rent control laws, and other regulations that limit our SFR Partners’ ability to increase rental rates may negatively impact their rental income and profitability.
As the landlord of numerous properties, our SFR Partners are involved from time to time in evicting residents who are not paying their rent or who are otherwise in material violation of the terms of their lease. Eviction activities impose legal and managerial expenses that raise costs and expose our customers to potential negative publicity. The eviction process is typically subject to legal barriers, mandatory “cure” policies, our internal policies and procedures, and other sources of expense and delay, each of which may delay our SFR Partners’ ability to gain possession and stabilize the property. Additionally, state and local landlord-tenant laws may impose legal duties to assist residents in relocating to new housing, or restrict the landlord’s ability to remove the resident on a timely basis or to recover certain costs or charge residents for damage residents cause to the landlord’s premises.
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Furthermore, state and local governmental agencies may introduce rent control laws or other regulations that limit our SFR Partners’ ability to increase rental rates, which may affect their rental income. Especially in times of recession and economic slowdown, rent control initiatives can amass significant political support. If rent controls unexpectedly became applicable to certain of our customers’ properties, their revenue from and the value of such properties could be adversely affected, as could our SFR operations.
Numerous tenant rights and consumer rights organizations exist throughout the country and operate in our SFR Partners’ markets, and both we and our customers could become a target of legal demands, litigation, and negative publicity. Many such consumer organizations have become more active and better funded in connection with mortgage foreclosure-related issues; and with the increased market for homes arising from displaced homeownership, some of these organizations may shift their litigation, lobbying, fundraising, and grassroots organizing activities to focus on landlord-resident issues.
Although we and our SFR Partners intend to conduct our business lawfully and in compliance with applicable landlord-tenant and consumer laws, such organizations might work in conjunction with trial and pro bono lawyers in one or multiple states to attempt to bring claims against us on a class action basis for damages or injunctive relief and to seek to publicize our activities in a negative light. We cannot anticipate what form such legal actions might take or what remedies they may seek. Additionally, such organizations may lobby local county and municipal attorneys or state attorneys general to pursue enforcement or litigation against us, may lobby state and local legislatures to pass new laws and regulations to constrain or limit our business operations, adversely impact our business, or may generate negative publicity for our business and harm our reputation. If they are successful in any such endeavors, they could directly limit and constrain our operations and may impose on us significant litigation expenses, including settlements to avoid continued litigation or judgments for damages or injunctions.
Risks Related to Dual Class Structure
The dual class structure of Pagaya Ordinary Shares has the effect of concentrating voting power with certain shareholders—in particular, our Founders—which will effectively eliminate your ability to influence the outcome of many important determinations and transactions, including a change in control.
Our Class A Ordinary Shares, which are the shares that are being issued or offered for resale, have one vote per share, and our Class B Ordinary Shares have 10 votes per share. On June 22, 2022, the Founders, and any person or entity that, through contract, proxy or operation of law, has irrevocably delegated the sole and exclusive right to vote the Class B Ordinary Shares held by such person or entity to a Founder (“Permitted Class B Owners”), received all of the Class B Ordinary Shares that were issued and outstanding. By virtue of their holdings of Class B Ordinary Shares, the Founders, in the aggregate, hold approximately 77.6% of our voting power. In addition, the Founders hold outstanding and unexercised options to purchase Pagaya Ordinary Shares issued pursuant to the Pagaya Share Plans, whether or not then vested or fully exercisable (“Pagaya Options”) which, if exercised in full and assuming no dilution of their holdings, would result in the Founders’ holding, in the aggregate, approximately 89.3% of our voting power. This percentage may increase if additional shares are issued to our Founders based on increases in our market capitalization at the consummation of the EJFA Merger (the “EJFA Closing”) as a result of the vesting of stock options. All outstanding Class B Ordinary Shares held by a Founder and any Permitted Class B Owners will automatically be converted into an equal number of Class A Ordinary Shares (and therefore will have one rather than 10 votes per share) on the earliest to occur of (i) (A) (1) such Founder’s employment as our officer being terminated not for cause, (2) such Founder resigning as our officer, (3) death or Permanent Disability (as defined in the Pagaya Articles) of such Founder or such Founder’s bankruptcy; provided, however, that if such Founder or such Permitted Class B Owner validly provides for the transfer of some or all of his, her or its Class B Ordinary Shares to one or more of the other Founders or Permitted Class B Owners affiliated with one or more of the other Founders in the event of death or Permanent Disability, then such Class B Ordinary Shares that are transferred to another Founder or Permitted Class B Owner affiliated with one or more of the other Founders shall remain Class B Ordinary Shares and shall not convert into an equal number of Class A Ordinary Shares or (4) the appointment of a receiver, trustee or similar official in bankruptcy or similar proceeding with respect to a Founder or his Class B Ordinary Shares and (B) such Founder no longer serving on Pagaya Board; (ii) 90 days after such Founder is terminated for cause, subject to certain exceptions, or (iii) the earliest to occur of (A) such time as the Founders and their permitted transferees first collectively hold less than 10% of our total issued and outstanding ordinary share
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capital and (B) the 15th anniversary of the EJFA Closing. See Exhibit 3.1 to this prospectus for further discussion of the terms of the Pagaya Articles, including the circumstances under which a Founder’s Class B Ordinary Shares will convert into Class A Ordinary Shares. Accordingly, except with respect to the limited matters as to which Israeli corporate law requires approval by a majority of votes cast by shareholders other than controlling shareholders, and although such Founders are not parties to any voting agreement (other than the Company Voting Agreement, dated as of September 15, 2021, by and among EJFA and certain of the Pagaya Shareholders (the “Pagaya Voting Agreement”)) or similar arrangement and are free to act independently of one another and without coordination or collaboration, such Founders will collectively effectively control all matters submitted to the our shareholders for the foreseeable future, including the election of directors, amendments of our organizational documents, compensation matters, and any merger, consolidation, sale of all or substantially all of our assets, or other major corporate transaction requiring shareholder approval.
The Founders may have interests that differ from yours and may vote in a way with which you disagree and which may be adverse to your interests. This concentrated control is likely to have the effect of limiting the likelihood of an unsolicited merger proposal, unsolicited tender offer, or proxy contest for the removal of directors. As a result, our governance structure and the adoption of the Pagaya Articles may have the effect of depriving our shareholders of an opportunity to sell their shares at a premium over prevailing market prices and make it more difficult to replace our directors and management.
The dual class structure of Pagaya Ordinary Shares may adversely affect the trading market for Class A Ordinary Shares.
We cannot predict whether our dual class structure will result in a lower or more volatile market price of Class A Ordinary Shares or in adverse publicity or other adverse consequences. For example, certain index providers have announced restrictions on including companies with dual class or multi-class share structures in certain of their indices. In July 2017, S&P Dow Jones and FTSE Russell announced changes to their eligibility criteria for the inclusion of shares of public companies on certain indices, including the Russell 2000, the S&P 500, the S&P Mid Cap 400 and the S&P SmallCap 600, to exclude companies with multiple classes of shares from being added to these indices. Beginning in 2017, MSCI Inc. (“MSCI”), a leading stock index provider, opened public consultations on their treatment of no-vote and multi-class structures and temporarily barred new multi-class listings from certain of its indices; however, in October 2018, MSCI announced its decision to include equity securities “with unequal voting structures” in its indices and to launch a new index that specifically includes voting rights in its eligibility criteria. As a result, our dual class capital structure would make us ineligible for inclusion in indices that exclude companies with multi-class share structures, and mutual funds, exchange-traded funds and other investment vehicles that attempt to passively track these indices will not be investing in Class A Ordinary Shares. We cannot assure you that other stock indices will not take a similar approach to S&P Dow Jones or FTSE Russell in the future. Exclusion from indices could make Class A Ordinary Shares less attractive to investors and, as a result, the market price of Class A Ordinary Shares could be adversely affected.
Risks Related to Our Legal and Regulatory Environment
Litigation, regulatory actions, consumer complaints and compliance issues could subject us to significant fines, penalties, judgments, remediation costs and/or requirements resulting in increased expenses.
In the ordinary course of business, we may be named as a defendant in various legal actions, including litigation, involving our Partners’ financial products. All such legal actions are inherently unpredictable and, regardless of the merits of the claims, litigation is often expensive, time-consuming, disruptive to our operations and resources, and distracting to management. Generally, litigation involving our Partner’s financial products arises from the dissatisfaction of a consumer with the products or services offered by our Partners; however, some of this litigation may arise from other matters, including claims of violation of laws related to collections efforts, and credit reporting. Our involvement in any such matter also could cause significant harm to our or our Partners’ reputations and divert management attention from the operation of our business, even if the matters are ultimately determined in our favor. If resolved against us, legal actions could result in excessive verdicts and judgments, injunctive relief, equitable relief, and other adverse consequences that may affect our financial condition and how we operate our business.
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In addition, a number of participants in the consumer financial services industry have been the subject of putative class action lawsuits, state attorney general actions, other state or local regulatory or enforcement actions, and federal regulatory enforcement actions, including actions relating to alleged unfair, deceptive or abusive acts or practices, violations of state licensing and lending laws, including state usury and disclosure laws, actions alleging discrimination on the basis of race, ethnicity, gender or other prohibited bases, and allegations of noncompliance with various state and federal laws and regulations relating to originating and collecting consumer finance loans and other consumer financial services and products. In the current regulatory environment, increased regulatory compliance efforts and enhanced regulatory enforcement have resulted in us undertaking significant time-consuming and expensive operational and compliance improvement efforts, which may delay or preclude our or our Partners’ ability to provide certain new products and services, including the use of our AI technology by Partners. There is no assurance that these regulatory matters or other factors will not, in the future, affect how we conduct our business and, in turn, have a material adverse effect on our business. In particular, legal proceedings brought under state consumer protection and anti-discrimination statutes or under any of the various federal consumer financial services statutes, including those prohibiting discrimination in lending and unfair, deceptive, and abusive acts or practices, may result in a separate fine assessed for each statutory and regulatory violation or substantial damages from class action lawsuits, potentially in excess of the amounts we earned from the underlying activities.
Many of the consumer and credit assets that the Financing Vehicles acquire are governed by agreements that include arbitration clauses. If these arbitration agreements were to become unenforceable for any reason, or such clauses are not included, we could experience an increase to our consumer litigation costs and exposure to potentially damaging class action lawsuits, with a potential material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
In addition, from time to time, through our operational and compliance controls, we identify compliance issues that require us to make operational changes and, depending on the nature of the issues, could result in financial remediation. These self-identified issues and remediation payments could be significant, depending on the issues and impact, and could generate litigation or regulatory investigations that subject us to additional risk.
If we fail to comply with or facilitate compliance with, or our Partners fail to comply with the variety of federal, state and local laws to which we or they are subject, including those related to consumer protection, consumer finance, lending, fair lending, data protection, and investment advisory services, or if we or our Partners are found to be operating without having obtained necessary state or local licenses, it may result in regulatory action, litigation, or monetary payments or may otherwise negatively impact our reputation, business, and results of operations, and may prevent us from serving users in jurisdictions where those regulations apply.
Our Partners and prospective Partners are highly regulated and are generally required to comply with stringent regulations in connection with performing business functions that our products and services address. Additionally, we facilitate compliance with these regulatory requirements. While we currently operate our business in an effort to ensure our business itself is not subject to extensive regulation, there is a risk that certain regulations could become applicable to us, including as we expand the functionality and use of our AI technology and network. In addition, we and our Partners, vendors, and other service providers must comply with laws and regulatory regimes that apply to us directly and our Partners, vendors, and other service providers indirectly, including through certain uses of our products and services, and in areas such as consumer finance and lending, investment advisory and securities law, and data protection, use and cybersecurity, and through our relationships with our Partners and the Financing Vehicles.
We must comply with regulatory regimes or facilitate compliance with regulatory regimes on behalf of our Partners that are independently subject to supervision by federal and state financial services and consumer protection regulators, including those applicable to consumer credit transactions, account servicing and debt collection, and the purchase and sale of whole loans and other related transactions. Certain state laws generally regulate interest rates, fees and other charges, require certain disclosures and regulate various loan terms and conditions. In addition, other federal and state laws may apply to loan originations, underwriting, allocation of finance assets originated by our Partners, the servicing and collection of loans and other obligations, the purchase and sale of whole loans or other obligations or securitization vehicles.
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Certain states have adopted laws regulating and requiring licensing by parties that engage in certain activities relating to consumer finance transactions, including facilitating, offering and assisting with such transactions in certain circumstances. Furthermore, certain states and localities have also adopted laws requiring licensing for consumer debt collection or purchasing or selling consumer loans or other obligations. The application of some consumer finance licensing laws to our AI technology, the networks of our Partners and the related activities we perform is unclear or debatable, which increases the risk that we may be deemed noncompliant with such licensing laws. In addition, state licensing requirements may evolve over time, including, in particular, recent trends toward increased licensing requirements and regulation of parties engaged in loan solicitation activities. If we or our Partners were found to be in violation of applicable state licensing requirements by a court or a state, federal, or local enforcement agency, our business could be harmed or limited, we could be subject to fines, damages, injunctive relief (including required modification or discontinuation of our business in certain areas), criminal penalties and other penalties or consequences, and the obligations from our Partners could be rendered void or unenforceable, in whole or in part, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business.
In particular, certain statutes, laws, regulations and rules to which we, our Partners, the Financing Vehicles or their respective service providers are or may be subject, and with which we facilitate or may facilitate compliance, include:
foreign, U.S. federal and state lending statutes and regulations that require certain parties, including our Partners, to hold licenses or other government approvals or filings in connection with specified activities, and impose requirements related to marketing and advertising, transaction disclosures and terms, fees and interest rates, usury, credit discrimination, credit reporting, servicemember relief, debt collection, repossession, unfair or deceptive business practices and consumer protection, as well as other state laws relating to privacy, information security, cybersecurity, conduct in connection with data breaches and money transmission;
the Equal Credit Opportunity Act and Regulation B promulgated thereunder, which prohibit creditors from discouraging or discriminating against credit applicants on the basis of race, color, sex, age, religion, national origin, marital status, the fact that all or part of the applicant’s income derives from any public assistance program or the fact that the applicant has in good faith exercised any right under the federal Consumer Credit Protection Act, and similar state and municipal fair lending laws;
foreign, U.S. federal and state securities laws, including, among others, the Securities Act, the Exchange Act, the U.S. Investment Advisers Act of 1940, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder (the “Investment Advisers Act”), and the Investment Company Act rules and regulations adopted under those laws, and similar foreign, state laws and regulations which govern securities law, advisory services, Financing Vehicles or how we generate or purchase consumer credit assets, other loan product regulations, the Israeli Joint Investments in Trust Law, 5754-1994, the Israeli Securities Law, 5728-1968, as amended, and the regulations promulgated thereunder (the “Israeli Securities Law”), the Israeli Law for Regulation of Investment Advice, Investment Marketing and Portfolio Management, 5755-1995, the Israeli Law for Supervision of Financial Services (Regulated Financial Services), 5776-2016, and the Israeli Banking (Licensing) Law, 5741-1981;
foreign, U.S. federal and state laws and regulations addressing privacy, cybersecurity, data protection, and the receipt, storing, sharing, use, transfer, disclosure, protection, and processing of certain types of data, including, among others, Fair Credit Reporting Act (the “FCRA”), Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (the “GLBA”), Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act, Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act, Controlling the Assault of Non-Solicited Pornography and Marketing (the “CAN-SPAM”), Telephone Consumer Protection Act (the “TCPA”), Federal Trade Commission Act (the “FTC Act”), California Consumer Privacy Act (the “CCPA”), General Data Protection Regulation (the “GDPR”) and the Protection of Privacy Law 5741-1981;
the FCRA and Regulation V promulgated thereunder, which imposes certain obligations on users of consumer reports and those that furnish information to consumer reporting agencies, including obligations relating to obtaining or using consumer reports, taking adverse action on the basis of information from
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consumer reports, the accuracy and integrity of furnished information, addressing risks of identity theft and fraud and protecting the privacy and security of consumer reports and consumer report information and other related data use laws and regulations;
the GLBA and Regulation P promulgated thereunder, which includes limitations on financial institutions’ disclosure of nonpublic personal information about a consumer to nonaffiliated third parties, in certain circumstances requires financial institutions to limit the use and further disclosure of nonpublic personal information by nonaffiliated third parties to whom they disclose such information and requires financial institutions to disclose certain privacy notices and practices with respect to information sharing with affiliated and unaffiliated entities as well as to safeguard personal borrower information, and other privacy laws and regulations;
the U.S. credit risk retention rules promulgated under the Dodd-Frank Act, which require a securitizer of securitization vehicles to retain an economic interest in the credit risk of the assets collateralizing the securitization vehicles;
the Truth in Lending Act and Regulation Z promulgated thereunder, and similar state laws, which require certain disclosures to borrowers regarding the terms and conditions of their consumer credit obligations, require creditors to comply with certain practice restrictions, limit the ability of a creditor to impose certain terms, impose disclosure requirements in connection with credit card applications and solicitations, and impose disclosure requirements in connection with credit advertising;
Section 5 of the FTC Act, which prohibits unfair and deceptive acts or practices in or affecting commerce, and Section 1031 of the Dodd-Frank Act, which prohibits unfair, deceptive or abusive acts or practices in connection with any consumer financial product or service, and analogous state laws prohibiting unfair, deceptive, unconscionable, unlawful or abusive acts or practices;
the Credit Practices Rule, which (i) prohibits creditors from using certain contract provisions that the Federal Trade Commission has found to be unfair to consumers; (ii) requires creditors to advise consumers who co-sign obligations about their potential liability if the primary obligor fails to pay; and (iii) prohibits certain late charges;
the FRB, OCC (as defined below) and FDIC guidance related to model risk management and management of vendors and other bank specific requirements pursuant to the terms of service agreements with banks and the examination and enforcement authority of the FDIC under the Bank Service Company Act;
U.S. federal and state regulation and licensing requirements related to the auto insurance and finance industries, including related to being a manager general agent;
the U.S. Bankruptcy Code, which limits the extent to which creditors may seek to enforce debts against parties who have filed for bankruptcy protection;
the Servicemembers Civil Relief Act, which allows military members to suspend or postpone certain civil obligations, requires creditors to reduce the interest rate to 6% on loans to military members under certain circumstances, and imposes restrictions on enforcement of loans to servicemembers, so that military members can devote full attention to military duties;
the Military Lending Act, which requires those who lend to “covered borrowers,” including members of the military and their dependents, to only offer Military Annual Percentage Rates (“APRs”) (a specific measure of all-in-cost-of-credit) under 36%, prohibits arbitration clauses in loan agreements, and prohibits certain other loan agreement terms and lending practices in connection with loans to military servicemembers, among other requirements, and for which violations may result in penalties including voiding of a loan agreement;
the Electronic Fund Transfer Act and Regulation E promulgated thereunder, which provide guidelines and restrictions on the electronic transfer of funds from consumers’ bank accounts, including a prohibition on a
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creditor requiring a consumer to repay a credit agreement in preauthorized (recurring) electronic fund transfers and disclosure and authorization requirements in connection with such transfers;
the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act and similar state laws, particularly the Uniform Electronic Transactions Act, which authorize the creation of legally binding and enforceable agreements utilizing electronic records and signatures and which require creditors and loan servicers to obtain a consumer’s consent to electronically receive disclosures required under federal and state laws and regulations;
the Right to Financial Privacy Act and similar state laws enacted to provide the financial records of financial institution customers a reasonable amount of privacy from government scrutiny;
the Bank Secrecy Act and the USA PATRIOT Act, which relate to compliance with anti-money laundering, borrower due diligence and record-keeping policies and procedures;
the regulations promulgated by the Office of Foreign Assets Control (“OFAC”) under the U.S. Treasury Department related to the administration and enforcement of sanctions against foreign jurisdictions and persons that threaten U.S. foreign policy and national security goals, primarily to prevent targeted jurisdictions and persons from accessing the U.S. financial system;
governmental laws, regulations, and covenants that are applicable to the properties that our Financing Vehicles have interests in, including tenant relief laws, restrictions on evictions and collections, rent control laws, affordability covenants, permit, license, and zoning requirements;
U.S. Fair Housing Act and state and local fair housing laws; and
other foreign, U.S., federal, state and local statutes, rules and regulations.
We and our Partners may not always have been, and may not always be, in compliance with these and other applicable statutes, regulations, rules and other laws. Compliance with these requirements is costly, time-consuming and limits our operational flexibility. Additionally, Congress, the states and regulatory agencies, as well as local municipalities, could further regulate consumer financial services in ways that make it more difficult or costly for us to operate our AI technology and offer related services or facilitate the allocation of obligations from our Partners. These laws also are often subject to changes that could severely limit the operations of our business model. For example, in 2019, a bill was introduced in the U.S. Senate that would create a notional cap of the lesser of 15% Annual Percentage Rate (“APR”) or the maximum rate permitted by the state in which the consumer resides. Although such a bill may never be enacted into law, if such a bill were to be enacted, it would greatly restrict the number of loans that could be placed through our network. Further, changes in the regulatory application or judicial interpretation of the laws and regulations applicable to financial institutions also could impact the manner in which we conduct our business. The regulatory environment in which financial institutions operate has become increasingly complex, and following the financial crisis that began in 2008, supervisory efforts to enforce relevant laws, regulations and policies have become more intense. Additionally, states are increasingly introducing and, in some cases, passing laws that restrict interest rates and APRs on loans similar to the assets acquired by the Financing Vehicles. For example, California has enacted a “mini-CFPB,” which increases its oversight over partnership relationships and strengthens state consumer protection authority of state regulators to police debt collections and unfair, deceptive or abusive acts and practices. Additionally, voter referenda have been introduced and, in some cases, passed restrictions on interest rates and/or APRs. If such legislation or bills were to be adopted, or state or federal regulators seek to restrict regulated financial institutions such as our Partners from engaging in business with us in certain ways, our Partners’ ability to originate assets in certain states, and the ability of Financing Vehicles to purchase such assets, could be greatly reduced, and as a result, our business, financial condition and results of operations would be adversely affected.
In addition, we are currently subject to a variety of, and may in the future become subject to, additional foreign, federal, state, and local laws that are continuously changing, including laws related to: the real estate brokerage, auto insurance, real estate ownership and services industries, credit cards, and data security, cybersecurity, privacy, and consumer protection. These laws can be costly to comply with, require significant management attention, and could
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subject us to claims, government enforcement actions, civil and criminal liability, or other remedies, including revocation of licenses and suspension of business operations.
Where applicable, we seek to comply with applicable law. Although we have developed policies and procedures designed to assist in compliance with these laws and regulations, no assurance can be given that our compliance policies and procedures will be effective. Compliance with these requirements is also costly, time-consuming and limits our operational flexibility. Nevertheless, if we, our Partners or the Financing Vehicles are found to not comply with applicable laws, we could become subject to greater scrutiny by regulatory agencies, face other sanctions or be required to obtain a license in such jurisdiction, which may have an adverse effect on our ability to continue to facilitate or acquire assets or make our network available to Partners and their customers in particular states, which may harm our business. In addition, non-compliance could subject us to damages, litigation, class action lawsuits, regulatory action, investigations, administrative enforcement actions, monetary payments to our Partners or asset investors, rescission rights held by investors in securities offerings and civil and criminal liability, all of which would harm our business and reputation.
Changes in laws or regulations relating to privacy, cybersecurity, data protection, or the protection, use or transfer of personal information, or any actual or perceived failure by us to comply with such laws and regulations or any other obligations relating to privacy, data protection, or the protection or transfer of personal information, could adversely affect our business.
We, our Partners, vendors, and other service providers, receive, collect, use, disclose, transmit, and store a large volume of personally identifiable information and other sensitive data relating to individuals, such as our Partners’ customers, asset investors and our employees. Our use, receipt, and other processing of data in our business subjects us to numerous state, federal and foreign laws and regulations, addressing privacy, cybersecurity, data protection, and the receipt, storing, sharing, use, transfer, disclosure, protection, and processing of certain types of data. Such regulations include, for example, the GLBA, Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act, Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act, CAN-SPAM, TCPA, FCRA, FTC Act, and the CCPA. These laws, rules, and regulations evolve frequently and their scope may continually change, through new legislation, amendments to existing legislation, and changes in interpretation or enforcement, and may be inconsistent from one jurisdiction to another.
For example, on December 9, 2021, the FTC adopted amendments to the GLBA’s Safeguards Rule, which requires financial services providers, like our Partners, to develop, implement, and maintain a comprehensive information security program. The amendments provide more prescriptive security controls that financial services providers would be required to implement, such as specific access and authentication controls, risk assessment requirements, and oversight by appointment of a Chief Information Security Officer who would be required to provide annual written reports to the board of directors. In addition, the FTC has brought enforcement actions against third-party service providers of financial services providers directly and against financial services providers for failures by service providers to implement appropriate controls to safeguard consumers’ personal information.
As another example, the CCPA went into effect on January 1, 2020, and, among other things, requires new disclosures to California consumers and affords such consumers new data privacy rights, including, among other things, the right to request a copy from a covered company of the personal information collected about them, the right to request deletion of such personal information, and the right to opt out of certain sales of personal information. The California Attorney General can enforce the CCPA, including seeking an injunction and civil penalties of up to $7,500 per violation. The CCPA also provides a private right of action for certain data breaches that is expected to increase data breach litigation. Additionally, a new privacy law, the California Privacy Rights Act (the “CPRA”), was approved by California voters in the November 3, 2020 election, and significantly modifies the CCPA, including expanding California consumers’ rights with respect to certain personal information and creating a new state agency to oversee implementation and enforcement efforts. The CPRA creates obligations relating to consumer data beginning on January 1, 2022, with implementing regulations formally adopted on February 3, 2023, and enforcement beginning July 1, 2023. Some observers have noted the CCPA and CPRA could mark the beginning of a trend toward more stringent privacy legislation in the United States, which could also increase our potential liability and adversely affect our business. For example, the CCPA has encouraged “copycat” or other similar laws to be considered and proposed in other states across the country, such as in Virginia, Colorado,
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Connecticut, New Hampshire, Illinois, Nebraska, and Utah. On March 2, 2021, Virginia enacted the Virginia Consumer Data Protection Act (the “CDPA”), and on July 8, 2021, Colorado enacted the Colorado Privacy Act (the “CPA”), comprehensive privacy statutes that become effective on January 1, 2023 and July 1, 2023, respectively, and share similarities with the CCPA, CPRA, and legislation proposed in other states.
The CCPA, CPRA, CDPA, CPA and other changes in laws or regulations relating to privacy, cybersecurity, data protection, and information security, particularly any new or modified laws or regulations, or changes to the interpretation or enforcement of laws or regulations like the GLBA, that require enhanced protection of certain types of data or new obligations with regard to data retention, transfer, or disclosure, could greatly increase the cost of providing our network, require significant changes to our operations, or even prevent us from providing our network in jurisdictions in which we currently operate and in which we may operate in the future. Certain other state laws impose similar privacy obligations and we also expect that more states may enact legislation similar to the CCPA, CPRA, CDPA and CPA, which provide consumers with new privacy rights and increase the privacy and security obligations of entities handling certain personal information of such consumers. The CCPA has prompted a number of proposals for new federal and state-level privacy legislation. Such proposed legislation, if enacted, may add additional complexity, variation in requirements, restrictions, and potential legal risk, require additional investment of resources in compliance programs, impact strategies and the availability of previously useful data, and could result in increased compliance costs and/or changes in business practices and policies. In addition, some jurisdictions, such as New York, Massachusetts, and Nevada have enacted more generalized data security laws that apply to certain data that we process. We cannot yet fully determine the impact these or future laws, rules, regulations, and industry standards may have on our business or operations. Any such laws, rules, regulations, and industry standards may be inconsistent among different jurisdictions, subject to differing interpretations, or may conflict with our current or future practices. Additionally, our Partners’ customers may be subject to differing privacy laws, rules, and legislation, which may mean that they require us to be bound by varying contractual requirements applicable to certain other jurisdictions. Adherence to such contractual requirements may impact our receipt, use, processing, storage, sharing, and disclosure of various types of information including financial information and other personal information, and may mean we become bound by, or voluntarily comply with, self-regulatory or other industry standards relating to these matters that may further change as laws, rules, and regulations evolve. Complying with these requirements and changing our policies and practices may be onerous and costly, and we may not be able to respond quickly or effectively to regulatory, legislative and other developments. These changes may in turn impair our ability to offer our existing or planned products and services and/or increase our cost of doing business.
Additionally, we have incurred, and may continue to incur, significant expenses in an effort to comply with privacy, cybersecurity, data protection, and information security standards and protocols imposed by law, regulation, industry standards, or contractual obligations. In particular, with laws and regulations such as the FCRA, GLBA, CCPA, CPRA, CDPA, CPA and potentially other laws and regulations that may be proposed or amended, imposing new and relatively burdensome obligations, and with substantial uncertainty over the interpretation and application of these and other laws and regulations, we may face challenges in addressing their requirements and making necessary changes to our policies and practices and may incur significant costs and expenses in an effort to do so.
As our business has grown, we must also remain compliant with privacy and data security laws from other jurisdictions outside of the United States and Israel, including the GDPR. The GDPR governs the collection, use, disclosure, transfer or other processing of personal data of persons located in the European Economic Area (the “EEA”) and the data practices of companies operating in the EEA. Among other things, the GDPR imposes requirements regarding the security of personal data and notification of data processing obligations to competent national data protection authorities, provides for lawful bases on which personal data can be processed, provides for an expansive definition of personal data and requires changes to informed consent practices. In addition, the GDPR provides for heightened scrutiny of transfers of personal data from the European Economic Area, to the United States and other jurisdictions that the European Commission does not recognize as having “adequate” data protection laws, and imposes substantial fines for breaches and violations (up to the greater of €20 million or 4% of an enterprise’s consolidated annual worldwide gross revenue). The GDPR also confers a private right of action on data subjects and consumer associations to lodge complaints with supervisory authorities, seek judicial remedies and obtain compensation for damages resulting from violations.
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Despite our efforts to comply with applicable laws, regulations, and other obligations relating to privacy, cybersecurity, data protection, and information security, it is possible that our interpretations of the law, practices, or our network could be inconsistent with, or fail or be alleged to fail to meet all requirements of, such laws, regulations, or obligations. Our failure, or the failure by our Partners, vendors, service providers, or Partners’ customers, to comply with applicable laws or regulations or any other obligations relating to privacy, cybersecurity, data protection, or information security, or any compromise of security that results in unauthorized access to, or use or release of personal information or other data relating to consumers or other individuals, or the perception that any of the foregoing types of failure or compromise has occurred, could damage our reputation, discourage new and existing Partners from working with us, or result in fines, investigations, or proceedings by governmental agencies and private claims and litigation, any of which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations. Even if not subject to legal challenge, the perception of privacy concerns, whether or not valid, may harm our reputation and brand and adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
A heightened regulatory and enforcement environment in the financial services industry may have an adverse impact on our Partners and our business.
Since the enactment of the Dodd-Frank Act, a number of substantial regulations affecting the supervision and operation of the financial services industry within the United States have been adopted, including those that establish the CFPB. The CFPB has issued guidance that applies to, and conducts direct examinations of, “supervised banks and nonbanks” as well as “supervised service providers”. In addition, the CFPB regulates consumer financial products and services. Certain of our Partners are also subject to regulation by federal and state authorities and, as a result, could pass through some of those compliance obligations to us.
To the extent this oversight or regulation negatively impacts our Partners, our business, financial condition, and results of operations could be adversely affected because, among other matters, our Partners could have less capacity to purchase products and services from us, could decide to avoid or abandon certain lines of business, or could seek to pass on increased costs to us by re-negotiating their agreements with us. Additional regulation, examination, and oversight of us could require us to modify the manner in which we contract with or provide products and services to our Partners, require us to invest additional time and resources to comply with such oversight and regulations, or limit our ability to update our existing products and services, or require us to develop new ones. Any of these events, if realized, could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations. The heightened enforcement environment includes a recent initiative by the Department of Justice Civil Rights Division, the CFPB and bank regulators to focus on “digital redlining” resulting from purportedly biased underwriting algorithms.
If we are deemed to be an investment company under the Investment Company Act, we may be required to institute burdensome compliance requirements, our activities may be restricted, and our ability to conduct business could be materially adversely affected.
If we were deemed to be an “investment company” under the Investment Company Act, applicable restrictions could make it impractical for us to continue our business as contemplated and could have a material adverse effect on our business. The Investment Company Act contains substantive legal requirements that regulate the manner in which an “investment company” is permitted to conduct its business activities.
The Investment Company Act defines an “investment company” as, in pertinent part, an issuer that holds itself out as being engaged primarily, or proposes to engage primarily, in the business of investing, reinvesting or trading in securities; or, absent an applicable exemption, owns or proposes to acquire investment securities having a value exceeding 40% of the value of its total assets (exclusive of U.S. government securities and cash items) on an unconsolidated basis. However, an issuer engaged primarily, directly or through a wholly-owned subsidiary or subsidiaries (that themselves are not investment companies or relying on an exclusion from the definition of “investment company” set out in Sections 3(c)(1) or 3(c)(7)), in a business or businesses other than that of investing, reinvesting, owning, holding, or trading in securities is excluded from the definition of “investment company.”
We currently hold interests in securitization transactions in order to satisfy U.S. risk retention requirements, which in the aggregate exceed 40% of our assets (exclusive of U.S. government securities and cash items) reflected on our balance sheet. Nonetheless, we believe that we are engaged primarily in a business or businesses other than
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that of investing, reinvesting, owning, holding, or trading in securities and we have conducted, and intend to continue to conduct, our business in a manner that does not result in us being characterized as an investment company. We believe that we are engaged primarily in the business of developing and implementing proprietary AI technology and related software solutions to assist Partners to originate loans and other assets with more effective credit decision-making processes, and sponsoring, managing and/or administering Financing Vehicles; and we are not in the business of investing, reinvesting or trading in securities. Although we also believe that our primary source of income is fees earned in exchange for the provision of services and not income on investment securities, to avoid being deemed an investment company, we may decide to forego attractive opportunities to expand our business.
If we are deemed to be an investment company under the Investment Company Act, including as a result of changes in our business in the future (although no such changes are currently anticipated), we may be required to institute burdensome compliance requirements, restricting our activities in a way that could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. The Investment Company Act and the rules thereunder contain detailed parameters for the organization and operations of investment companies. Among other things, the Investment Company Act and the rules thereunder limit or prohibit transactions with affiliates, impose limitations on the issuance of debt and equity securities, prohibit the issuance of stock options, and impose certain governance requirements. We intend to continue to conduct our operations so that we will not be deemed to be an investment company under the Investment Company Act. However, if anything were to happen that would cause us to be deemed to be an investment company under the Investment Company Act, requirements imposed by the Investment Company Act, including limitations on our capital structure, ability to transact business with affiliates and ability to compensate key employees, could make it impractical for us to continue our business as currently conducted. Compliance with the requirements of the Investment Company Act applicable to registered investment companies may make it difficult for us to continue our current operations and could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. If we were ever deemed to be in noncompliance with the Investment Company Act, we could also be subject to various penalties, including administrative or judicial proceedings that might result in censure, fine, civil penalties, cease-and-desist orders or other adverse consequences, as well as private rights of action, any of which could materially adversely affect our business.
The SEC oversees and directly regulates the activities of a subsidiary that is a registered investment adviser under the Investment Advisers Act.
The Investment Advisers Act imposes specific restrictions on an investment adviser’s ability to conduct its investment advisory business and operations. Our registered investment adviser and certain other parts of our business are subject to additional requirements that cover, among other things, disclosure of information about our business to Partners and asset investors; maintenance of written compliance policies and procedures; conflicts of interest; agency and principal transactions; maintenance of extensive books and records; restrictions on the types of fees we may charge, including network AI fees; solicitation arrangements; maintaining effective compliance programs; custody of client assets; client privacy; advertising; and proxy voting. Under the Investment Advisers Act, an investment adviser (whether or not registered under the Investment Advisers Act) has fiduciary duties to its clients. The SEC has interpreted these duties to impose standards, requirements and limitations on, among other things, trading for proprietary, personal and client accounts; conflicts of interest; allocations of investment opportunities among clients or other services that help managers make investment decisions; execution of transactions; and recommendations to clients. One of our subsidiaries is subject to regular examinations by the SEC and as a relatively new registered investment adviser in 2021, it has not yet undergone a routine examination. Any adverse findings resulting from such examination may result in administrative enforcements or significant reputational harm. Failure to comply with the obligations imposed by the Investment Advisers Act could result in investigations, sanctions, restrictions on the activities of us or our personnel and reputational damage.
We and the Financing Vehicles rely on complex exemptions from statutes in conducting the funding component of our business.
We regularly rely on exemptions from various requirements of the Securities Act, the Exchange Act, the Investment Company Act, the Commodity Exchange Act and the U.S. Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended, in conducting the funding component of our business with the Financing Vehicles. The
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requirements imposed by regulators are designed primarily to ensure the integrity of the financial markets and to protect asset investors and are not designed to protect our shareholders. Consequently, these regulations often serve to limit our activities and impose burdensome compliance requirements. These exemptions are highly complex, the application to our business and Financing Vehicles can be ambiguous and may in certain circumstances depend on compliance by third parties whom we do not control. If for any reason these exemptions were to become unavailable to us, or their applicability challenged, we could become subject to regulatory action or third-party claims and our business could be materially and adversely affected.
Securitizations expose us to certain risks, and we can provide no assurance that we will be able to access the securitization market in the future, which could materially and adversely affect our ability to execute on our business plan.
We have sponsored the securitizations, and expect in the future to sponsor securitizations, of certain assets acquired from our Partners by the Financing Vehicles. In asset-backed securities transactions, a special purpose entity (or “SPE”), which we administer, purchases pools of assets from certain of our Partners. Concurrently, each securitization SPE typically issues notes and certificates pursuant to the terms of indentures and trust agreements. The securities issued by the SPEs in securitization vehicles transactions are each secured by the pool of assets owned by the applicable SPE. We may retain debtor equity interests in the SPEs. Such equity interests are residual interests in that they entitle the equity owners of such SPEs, including us, to a certain proportion of the residual cash flows, if any, from the loans and any assets remaining in such SPEs once the securities are satisfied and paid in full. Further, we, as securitization sponsor or through a majority-owned affiliate, will hold either an eligible horizontal interest in the most subordinate class of securities or an eligible vertical interest of a portion of each class of securities offered to satisfy U.S. risk retention requirements, and we may purchase securities in excess of the amount required pursuant to U.S. risk retention rules. As a result of challenging credit and liquidity conditions, the value of the subordinated securities that we retain or other transaction participants purchase in such SPEs might be reduced or, in some cases, eliminated.
During periods of financial disruption, such as the financial crisis that began in 2008 and the COVID-19 pandemic that began in early 2020, the securitization market has been constrained or has contracted, and this could occur again in the future. In addition, other matters, such as (i) accounting standards applicable to securitization transactions and (ii) capital and leverage requirements applicable to banks and other regulated financial institutions holding asset-backed securities, could result in decreased investor demand for securities issued through our securitization transactions, or increased competition from other institutions that undertake securitization transactions. In addition, compliance with certain regulatory requirements, including the Dodd-Frank Act, the Investment Company Act and the so-called “Volcker Rule,” may affect the type of securitizations that we are able to complete or limit our ability to effect securitization transactions entirely. Recent deterioration in the securitization markets and potential future declines may materially impact our revenues, income and cash flow. In particular, certain of our historical Financing Vehicles have had substantially higher delinquencies when compared to similar securitizations of our 2020 vintage, which may result in a decline in our revenue, income and cash flow.
If it is not possible or economical for us to securitize consumer credit assets in the future, we would need to seek alternative financing to support our business and the products and services we provide to our Partners. Such funding may be unavailable on commercially reasonable terms, or at all. If the cost of such purchasing consumer credit assets were to be higher than that of our securitizations, the fair value of the consumer credit assets would likely be reduced, which would negatively affect the investment performance of certain of the Financing Vehicles and our results of operations. If we are unable to access such alternative financing, our ability to direct the purchase of consumer credit assets by securitization vehicles and our results of operations, financial condition and liquidity would be materially adversely affected.
Pursuant to the terms of the securitization transaction documents, we may be entitled to excess amounts, if any, generated by the sale of securitization notes and certificates to asset investors, which represents a significant source of our earnings. We cannot assure you that the Financing Vehicles will continue to purchase consumer credit assets or that they will continue to purchase assets in transactions that generate the same excess cash flow, spreads and/or fees that have historically been purchased.
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Potential asset investors may also reduce the prices they are willing to pay for the securitization notes and/or certificates they purchase during periods of economic slowdown or recession to compensate for any increased risks. A reduction in the sale price of the securitization notes and/or certificates would negatively impact our operations and returns. Any sustained decline in demand for consumer credit assets, or any increase in delinquencies, defaults or losses that result from economic downturns, may also reduce the price we receive on securitization notes and/or certificates, which would harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We are subject to anti-corruption, anti-bribery, anti-money laundering, economic and trade sanctions and similar laws, and non-compliance with such laws can subject us to criminal or civil liability and harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We may be subject to certain economic and trade sanctions laws and regulations, export control and import laws and regulations, including those that are administered by OFAC, the U.S. Department of State, the U.S. Department of Commerce, the United Nations Security Council, the Israeli Ministry of Defense, the Israeli Ministry of Finance, and other relevant governmental authorities.
We are also subject to the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended (the “FCPA”), the United Kingdom Bribery Act 2010, Chapter 9 (sub-chapter 5) of the Israeli Penal Law, 5737-1977, the Israeli Prohibition on Money Laundering Law, 5760-2000 and other anti-bribery laws in countries in which we conduct our activities. These laws generally prohibit companies, their employees and third-party intermediaries from authorizing, promising, offering, providing, soliciting or accepting, directly or indirectly, improper payments or benefits to or from any person whether in the public or private sector. In addition, the FCPA’s accounting provisions require us to maintain accurate books and records and a system of internal accounting controls. We have policies, procedures, systems, and controls designed to promote compliance with applicable anti-corruption laws.
As we increase and scale our business, we may engage with business partners and third-party intermediaries to market our solutions and obtain necessary permits, licenses and other regulatory approvals. In addition, we or our third-party intermediaries may have direct or indirect interactions with officials and employees of government agencies or state-owned or affiliated entities. We can be held liable for the corrupt or other illegal activities of these third-party intermediaries, our employees, representatives, contractors, Partners, asset investors and agents, even if we do not authorize such activities.
Our Partners may have customers, or asset investors may be, in jurisdictions that are subject to economic and financial sanctions programs or trade embargoes maintained by the United States (including sanctions administered by OFAC), Israel (including the Israeli Trade with the Enemy Ordinance, 1939, the Israeli Defense Export Control Law, 5767-2007, the Israeli Import and Export Order (Control of Dual-Purpose Goods, Services and Technology Exports), 5767-2006 and other sanctions laws and specialized lists), the European Union, the United Kingdom, and other applicable jurisdictions. These sanctions generally prohibit the sale of products or provision of services to jurisdictions subject to a full embargo (“Sanctioned Countries”) and to sanctioned parties. We have taken steps to avoid having transactions with those in Sanctioned Countries and have implemented various control mechanisms designed to prevent unauthorized dealings with Sanctioned Countries or sanctioned parties going forward. Although we have taken precautions to prevent our solutions from being provided, deployed or used in violation of sanctions laws, due to the remote nature of our solutions and the potential for manipulation using virtual private networks, we cannot assure you that our policies and procedures relating to sanctions compliance will prevent any violations. If we are found to be in violation of any applicable sanctions regulations laws and regulations, it could result in significant fines or penalties and possible incarceration for responsible employees and managers, as well as reputational harm and loss of business.
Despite our compliance efforts and activities, there can be no assurance that our employees or representatives will comply with the relevant laws and we may be held responsible. Non-compliance with anti-corruption, anti-money laundering, export control, economic and trade sanctions and other trade laws could subject us to whistleblower complaints, investigations, sanctions, settlements, prosecution, other enforcement actions, disgorgement of profits, significant fines, damages, other civil and criminal penalties or injunctions, suspension and/or debarment from contracting with certain persons, the loss of export privileges, reputational harm, adverse media coverage and other collateral consequences. If any subpoenas or investigations are initiated, governmental or other
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sanctions are imposed, or if we do not prevail in any possible civil or criminal litigation, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially harmed. Responding to any action will likely result in a materially significant diversion of management’s attention and resources and significant defense and compliance costs and other professional fees. As a general matter, enforcement actions and sanctions could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.
As the political and regulatory framework for AI technology and machine learning evolves, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.
The political and regulatory framework for AI technology and machine learning is evolving and remains uncertain. It is possible that new laws and regulations will be adopted in the United States, or existing laws and regulations may be interpreted in new ways, that would affect the operation of our network and the way in which we use AI technology and machine learning, including with respect to lending laws, fair lending laws and model risk management guidance. In the last year, the U.S. Banking regulators and CFPB have increased its focus on financial institutions that rely on AI technology in their business and has sent requests for information to various companies to better understand the use of AI technology and machine learning by financial institutions. Further, the cost to comply with such laws or regulations could be significant and would increase our operating expenses, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, a number of U.S. lawmakers have stated that algorithmic underwriting technologies may result in disparate impact discrimination and urged consumer regulatory agencies to increase enforcement actions where necessary to ensure that consumer lending technology is not being used to discriminate or exacerbate existing biases. Accordingly, we face a risk that the use of machine learning in our models, or one or more variables in our model, could be deemed to have resulted in a “disparate impact” on protected groups. Such a result would require us to revise the loan decisioning model in a manner that might generate lower approval rates or higher credit losses.
If obligations by one or more Partners that utilize our network were subject to successful challenge that the Partner was not the “true lender,” such obligations may be unenforceable, subject to rescission or otherwise impaired, we or other program participants may be subject to penalties, and/or our commercial relationships may suffer, each of which would adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Obligations are originated by our Partners in reliance on the fact that our Partners or their bank partners (if applicable) are the “true lenders” for such obligations rather than us or our Partners (if applicable). That true lender status determines various program details, including that we do not hold licenses required solely for being the party that extends credit to consumers, among other requirements. Because the obligations facilitated with the assistance of our AI technology are originated by our Partners or their bank partners, many state consumer financial regulatory requirements, including usury restrictions (other than the restrictions of the state in which a Partner originating a particular obligation is located) and many licensing requirements and substantive requirements under state consumer credit laws, are treated as inapplicable based on principles of federal preemption or express exemptions provided in relevant state laws for certain types of financial institutions or obligations they originate.
Certain recent litigation and regulatory enforcement activities have challenged, or are currently challenging, the characterization of certain Partners or their bank partners as the “true lender” in connection with programs involving origination relationships between a bank partner and non-bank lending network or program manager. For example, the Colorado Administrator has entered into a settlement agreement with certain banks and nonbanks that addresses this true lender issue. Specifically, the settlement agreement sets forth a safe harbor indicating that a bank is the true lender if certain specific terms and conditions are met. However, other states could also bring lawsuits based on these types of relationships. For example, on June 5, 2020, the Washington, DC Attorney General filed a lawsuit against online lender Elevate Credit International Limited (“Elevate”) for allegedly deceptively marketing high-cost loans with interest rates above the Washington, DC usury cap. The usury claim is based on an allegation that Elevate, which was not licensed in Washington, DC, and not its partner bank, originated these loans, and was therefore in violation of the state’s usury laws.
Pursuant to the Congressional Review Act, Congress and the executive branch have repealed the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency’s (the “OCC”) True Lender Rule, which deemed a national bank that funded a loan or was named as the lender in an agreement the “true lender.” Under the Congressional Review Act, the OCC is barred
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from promulgating a substantially similar rule. Accordingly, how regulators and courts will apply and interpret laws relevant to the “true lender” issue is unclear.
There have been no formal proceedings against us or the Financing Vehicles or indication of any such proceedings to date, but there can be no assurance that the Colorado Administrator or other state regulators will not make assertions similar to those made in its present actions with respect to the obligations facilitated with the assistance of our network in the future.
It is also possible that other state agencies or regulators could make similar assertions. If a court, or a state or federal enforcement agency, were to deem us, rather than our Partners, to be the “true lender” for obligations originated by our Partners on our network, and if for this reason (or any other reason) the obligations were deemed subject to and in violation of certain state consumer finance laws, we (or the Financing Vehicles) could be subject to fines, damages, injunctive relief (including required modification or discontinuation of our business in certain areas) and other penalties or consequences, and the obligations could be rendered void or enforceable in whole or in part, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business (directly, or as a result of adverse impact on our relationships with our Partners, asset investors or other commercial counterparties).
If assets originated by our Partners were found to violate the laws of one or more states, whether at origination or after sale by our Partners, assets acquired, directly or indirectly, by the Financing Vehicles may be unenforceable or otherwise impaired, we (or the Financing Vehicles) may be subject to, among other things, fines and penalties, and/or our commercial relationships may suffer, each of which would adversely affect our business and results of operations.
When establishing the interest rates and structures (and the amounts and structures of certain fees constituting interest under federal banking law, such as origination fees, late fees and non-sufficient funds fees) that are charged by our Partners on assets originated with the assistance of our AI technology, our Partners (or their bank partners) rely on certain authority under federal law to export the interest rate permitted in the state where each Partner (or its bank partners) is located to their customers in all other states. Further, certain of our Partners and asset investors rely on the ability of subsequent holders to continue charging such rate with such fee structures and enforce other contractual terms agreed to by our Partners (or their bank partners), which are permissible under federal banking laws following the acquisition of the assets. The current annual percentage rates of the assets facilitated with the assistance of our technology network typically range up to 36%. In some states, the interest rates of certain loans exceed the maximum interest rate permitted for consumer loans made by non-bank lenders to customers residing in, or that have nexus to, such states. In addition, the rate structures for assets may not be permissible in all states for non-bank lenders and/or the amount or structures of certain fees charged in connection with assets may not be permissible in all states for non-bank lenders.
Usury, fee and disclosure-related claims involving loans may be brought or raised in multiple ways. Program participants may face litigation, government enforcement or other challenge, for example, based on claims that bank lenders did not establish loan terms that were permissible in the state such participants were located or did not correctly identify the home or host state in which they were located for purposes of interest exportation authority under federal law. Alternatively, we, our non-bank Partners or asset investors may face litigation, government enforcement or other challenge, for example, based on claims that rates and fees were lawful at origination, but that subsequent purchasers were unable to enforce the loan pursuant to its contracted-for terms, or that certain disclosures were not provided at origination because while such disclosures are not required of banks, they may be required of non-bank lenders.
In Madden v. Midland Funding, LLC, 786 F.3d 246 (2d Cir. 2015), cert. denied, 136 S. Ct. 2505 (June 27, 2016), for example, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit held that the non-bank purchaser of defaulted credit card debt could not rely on preemption standards under the National Bank Act applicable to the originator of such debt in defense of usury claims.
The extent to which other courts will apply the Second Circuit’s Madden decision remains subject to clarification. For example, the Colorado Administrator of the Colorado Uniform Consumer Credit Code (the “UCCC”), reached a settlement with respect to complaints against two online lending platforms, including with
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respect to the role of partners and sale of assets to investors. The complaints included, among other claims, allegations, grounded in the Second Circuit’s Madden decision, that the rates and fees for certain loans could not be enforced lawfully by non-bank purchasers of bank-originated loans. Under the settlement, these banks and non-Partners committed to, among other things, limit the APR on loans to Colorado consumers to 36% and to take other actions to ensure that the banks were in fact the true lenders. The nonbanks also agreed to obtain and maintain a Colorado lending license. In Colorado, this settlement should provide a helpful model for what constitutes an acceptable Partnership model. However, the settlement may also invite other states to initiate their own actions, and set their own regulatory standards through enforcement.
As noted above, federal prudential regulators have also taken actions to address the Madden decision. On May 29, 2020, the OCC issued a final rule reaffirming the “valid when made” doctrine. This ruling affirms that when a national bank or savings association sells, assigns, or otherwise transfers a loan, interest permissible before the transfer continues to be permissible after the transfer. That rule took effect on August 3, 2020. Similarly, the FDIC finalized on June 25, 2020 its 2019 proposal declaring that the interest rate for a loan is determined when the loan is made, and will not be affected by subsequent events. A number of states have filed suits seeking to invalidate these rules on the grounds that the OCC and FDIC exceeded their authority when promulgating those rules. Notably, on February 8, 2022 the District Court for the Northern District of California granted summary judgment in favor of the OCC and FDIC against state claims that the valid when made rules adopted by the FDIC and OCC were invalid; however, future court interpretations of these federal rules are uncertain.
There are factual distinctions between our programs and the circumstances addressed in the Second Circuit’s Madden decision, as well as the circumstances in the Colorado Uniform Consumer Credit Code settlement, credit card securitization litigation, and similar cases. As noted above, there are also bases on which the Madden decision’s validity might be subject to challenge or the Madden decision may be addressed by federal regulation or legislation. Nevertheless, there can be no guarantee that a Madden-like claim will not be brought successfully against us or the Financing Vehicles.
If a borrower or any state agency were to successfully bring a claim against us, our Partners, a Financing Vehicle, the managers or administrators of such vehicles or asset investors for a state usury law or fee restriction violation and the rate or fee at issue on the loan was impermissible under applicable state law, we, our Partners, Financing Vehicles, administrators or such asset investors may face various commercial and legal repercussions, including that such parties would not receive the total amount of interest expected, and in some cases, may not receive any interest or principal, may hold assets that are void, voidable, rescindable, or otherwise impaired, or may be subject to monetary, injunctive or criminal penalties. Were such repercussions to apply to us, we may suffer direct monetary loss or may be a less attractive candidate for our Partners, Financing Vehicle administrators or asset investors with which to enter into or renew relationships. We may also be subject to payment of damages in situations where we agreed to provide indemnification to our Partners or Financing Vehicles, as well as fines and penalties assessed by state and federal regulatory agencies.
The CFPB has at times taken expansive views of its authority to regulate consumer financial services, creating uncertainty as to how the agency’s actions or the actions of any other new government agency could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The CFPB has broad authority to create and modify regulations under federal consumer financial protection laws and regulations, such as the Truth in Lending Act and Regulation Z, the Equal Credit Opportunity Act (“ECOA”) and Regulation B, the Fair Credit Reporting Act and Regulation V, the Electronic Funds Transfer Act and Regulation E, among other laws, and to enforce compliance with those laws. The CFPB supervises banks, thrifts and credit unions with assets over $10 billion and examines certain of our Partners. Further, the CFPB is charged with the examination and supervision of certain participants in the consumer financial services market, including payday lenders, private education lenders, and larger participants in other areas of financial services. The CFPB is also authorized to prevent “unfair, deceptive or abusive acts or practices” through its rulemaking, supervisory and enforcement authority. To assist in its enforcement, the CFPB maintains an online complaint system that allows consumers to log complaints with respect to various consumer finance products, including the financial products facilitated with the assistance of our AI technology. This system could inform future CFPB decisions with respect to its regulatory, enforcement or examination focus. The CFPB may also request reports concerning our organization,
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business conduct, markets and activities and conduct on-site examinations of our business on a periodic basis if the CFPB were to determine, including through its complaint system, that we were engaging in activities that pose risks to consumers.
There continues to be uncertainty about the future of the CFPB and as to how its strategies and priorities, including in both its examination and enforcement processes, will impact our business and our results of operations going forward. This uncertainty is increased in light of the fact that the new director of the CFPB has new examination and enforcement priorities, including safeguarding against algorithmic bias. In April 2022, the CFPB announced that it intends to examine nonbank financial companies that pose risks to consumers. If the CFPB decides to subject us to its supervisory process, it could significantly increase the level of regulatory scrutiny of our business practices. Moreover, the agency has issued several interpretive statements and guidance documents that could impact our business practices including, but not limited to, a May 2022 statement on compliance obligations under ECOA for companies that rely on complex algorithms when making credit decisions. The agency also issued an update to its examination manual that contains a novel interpretation of its authority to prohibit unfair, deceptive, or abusive acts or practices that would authorize the agency to treat any instance of discrimination against a protected class as an unfair act or practice under the Dodd-Frank Act. The CFPB also issued an interpretive rule expanding the authority of states to enforce requirements of federal consumer financial laws including ECOA. Most recently, effective September 30, 2022, the CFPB rescinded availability of no-action letter and compliance assistance sandbox policies for fintechs due to CFPB’s belief that these policies did not advance their stated objective of facilitating consumer-beneficial innovation. Lastly, in December 2022, the CFPB proposed creation of a registration system for nonbanks subject to agency/court orders involving alleged violations of federal, state or local consumer protection laws.
In addition, evolving views regarding the use of alternative data variables and machine learning in assessing credit risk could result in the CFPB taking actions that result in requirements to alter or cease offering affected financial products and services, making them less attractive and restricting our ability to offer them. For example, in response to a February 2020 inquiry, three members of the U.S. Senate recommended as part of their findings, that the CFPB further review Upstart’s use of educational variables in its model. The CFPB could also implement rules that restrict our effectiveness in servicing our financial products and services.
Although we have committed resources to enhancing our compliance programs, future actions by the CFPB (and/or other regulators) against us, our Partners or our competitors could discourage the use of our services or those of our Partners, which could result in reputational harm, a loss of our Partners, our Partners’ customers or asset investors, or discourage the use of our or their services and adversely affect our business. If the CFPB changes regulations that were adopted in the past by other regulators and transferred to the CFPB by the Dodd-Frank Act, or modifies through supervision or enforcement past regulatory guidance or interprets existing regulations in a different or stricter manner than they have been interpreted in the past by us, the industry or other regulators, our compliance costs and litigation exposure could increase materially. This is particularly true with respect to the application of ECOA and Regulation B to credit risk models that rely upon machine learning and alternative variables, an area of law where regulatory guidance is currently uncertain and still evolving, and for which there are not well-established regulatory norms for establishing compliance.
The current presidential administration has appointed and is expected to continue to appoint consumer-oriented regulators at federal agencies such as the CFPB, Federal Trade Commission, the OCC and the FDIC and the government’s focus on enforcement of federal consumer protection laws is expected to increase. It is possible that these regulators could promulgate rulemakings and bring enforcement actions that materially impact our business and the business of our bank partners. If future regulatory or legislative restrictions or prohibitions are imposed that affect our ability to offer certain of our products or that require us to make significant changes to our business practices, and if we are unable to develop compliant alternatives with acceptable returns, these restrictions or prohibitions could have a material adverse effect on our business. If the CFPB, or another regulator, were to issue a consent decree or other similar order against us, this could also directly or indirectly affect our results of operations. If future regulatory or legislative restrictions or prohibitions are imposed that affect our ability to offer certain of our products or that require us to make significant changes to our business practices, and if we are unable to develop compliant alternatives with acceptable returns, these restrictions or prohibitions could have a material adverse effect
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on our business. If the CFPB were to pursue an enforcement action against us or one or more of our Partners, this could also directly or indirectly adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our compliance and operational costs and litigation exposure could increase if and when the CFPB amends or finalizes any proposed regulations, including the regulations discussed above or if the CFPB or other regulators enact new regulations, change regulations that were previously adopted, modify, through supervision or enforcement, past regulatory guidance, or interpret or enforce existing regulations in a manner different or stricter than have been previously interpreted.
We may be subject to regulatory risks related to our operation in Israel.
Although we operate and manage significant business activities from our headquarters in Israel, and source part of the financing for the Financing Vehicles from Israeli asset investors, we do not deliberately target the Israeli consumer market, do not actively promote or market our services or products to Israeli consumers, and do not solicit funding from non-accredited Israeli investors, except with respect to a limited number of non-accredited Israeli investors available under applicable Israeli securities laws. We believe we are not required to hold any specific licenses in Israel and have not applied for any such licenses, since we believe that our activity is either not regulated under Israeli law or performed in reliance on applicable exemptions from the relevant regulation. Nevertheless, in view of the complexity and novelty of our business model and the fact that investment funds activity is not specifically regulated in Israel, uncertainty exists with respect to various regulatory matters, and we are exposed to the risk that an Israeli regulatory authority or agency (including the Israel Securities Authority, the Israel Capital Markets, Insurance and Savings Authority or the Bank of Israel) determines that our conduct is not in compliance with local laws or regulations or requires local licensing, including pursuant to the Israeli Regulation of Investment Advice, Investment Marketing and Portfolio Management Law, 5755-1995, the Joint Investments in Trust Law, 5754-1994, the Law for the Regulation of the Activity of Credit Rating Companies, 5774-2014, the Supervision of Financial Services (Regulated Financial Services) Law, 5776-2016, or the Banking (Licensing) Law, 5741-1981.
Failure to comply with relevant licensing or other regulatory requirements could lead to reputational damage to us, limit our ability to grow or continue to operate our business in Israel, negatively impact our relationships with Israeli regulators and expose us to the risk of fines, penalties and sanctions.
Uncertainty and instability resulting from the conflict between Russia and Ukraine could adversely affect our business, financial condition and operations.
In late February 2022, Russian military forces launched significant military action against Ukraine, and a sustained conflict and disruption in the region has continued through the date of this prospectus, and is likely to continue in the future. It is not possible to predict the broader or longer-term consequences of this conflict, which could include further sanctions, embargoes, regional instability, geopolitical shifts and adverse effects on macroeconomic conditions, security conditions, currency exchange rates and financial markets. In response to Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, the United States, the United Kingdom, the European Union and several other countries have imposed or are imposing far-reaching sanctions and export control restrictions on Russian entities and individuals. These and any additional sanctions, as well as any counter responses by the governments of Russia or other jurisdictions, and prolonged unrest, intensified military activities and/or the implementation of more extensive sanctions could adversely affect the global financial markets generally and levels of economic activity as well as increase financial markets volatility.
Although we do not have any employees, staff, operations, materials or equipment located in Ukraine, Russia or Belarus, some of our customers, suppliers and Partners may have employees, staff, consultants, operations, materials or equipment located in Ukraine, Russia or Belarus which could adversely affect our business or the services being provided to us.
Cybersecurity organizations in many countries have published warnings of increased cybersecurity threats to businesses, and external events, like the conflict between Russia and Ukraine, may increase the likelihood of cybersecurity attacks. We or our customers, suppliers and Partners may be subject to retaliatory cyberattacks perpetrated by Russia or others at its direction in response to economic sanctions and other actions taken against Russia as a result of its invasion of Ukraine. In response to the conflict between Russia and Ukraine, we have
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blocked all incoming internet traffic from Russia, Ukraine and Belarus, including the ability to log-in to Pagaya systems from such countries (and has provided unique access to one employee of a subcontractor via a dedicated solution). In addition, we are taking additional extensive measures of monitoring any potential abnormal behavior coming from Russia, Ukraine or Belarus that may directly or indirectly affect us. Any failure or security breach of information systems or data could result in a violation of applicable privacy and other laws, significant legal and financial exposure, damage to our reputation or a loss of confidence in our security measures, which could also adversely affect our business.
These and other global and regional conditions may adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Risks Related to Our Operations in Israel
Conditions in Israel and relations between Israel and other countries could adversely affect our business.
We are incorporated under the laws of the State of Israel, and our major corporate office and certain of our facilities are located in Israel. Accordingly, political, economic and military conditions in Israel and the surrounding region directly affect our business and operations and could materially and adversely affect our ability to continue to operate from Israel. Since the State of Israel was established in 1948, a number of armed conflicts have occurred between Israel and its Arab neighbors. In the event that our facilities are damaged as a result of hostile action or hostilities otherwise disrupt the ongoing operation of our facilities, our ability to continue our operations could be materially adversely affected.
In recent years, Israel has been engaged in sporadic armed conflicts with terrorist groups, including those that control the Gaza Strip and other regions close to Israel. In addition, Iran has threatened to attack Israel and may be developing nuclear weapons. Some of these hostilities were accompanied by missiles being fired from the Gaza Strip, Lebanon and Syria against civilian targets in various parts of Israel, including areas in which our employees and independent contractors are located, which negatively affected business conditions in Israel. Any hostilities involving Israel, regional political instability or the interruption or curtailment of trade between Israel and its trading partners could materially and adversely affect our operations and results of operations.
Our commercial insurance does not cover losses that may occur as a result of events associated with war and terrorism. Although the Israeli government currently covers the reinstatement value of property damage and certain direct and indirect damages that are caused by terrorist attacks or acts of war, such coverage would likely be limited, may not be applicable to our business (either due to the geographic location of our offices or the type of business that we operate) and may not reinstate our loss of revenue or economic losses more generally. Furthermore, we cannot assure you that this government coverage will be maintained or that it will sufficiently cover our potential damages, or whether such coverage would be timely provided. Any losses or damages incurred by us could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Further, in the past, the State of Israel and Israeli companies have been subjected to economic boycotts. Several countries still restrict doing business with Israel and Israeli companies, and additional countries may impose restrictions on doing business with Israel and Israeli companies if hostilities in Israel or political instability in the region continues or increases. These restrictive laws and policies, or significant downturn in the economic or financial condition of Israel, could materially and adversely affect our operations and product development, and could cause our sales to decrease.
A large concentration of our staff resides in Israel and many of our employees and independent contractors in Israel are required to perform military reserve duty, which may disrupt their work for us.
Many of our employees and independent contractors, including certain of our Founders and certain members of our management team, operate from our headquarters that are located in Tel-Aviv, Israel. In addition, a number of our officers and directors are residents of Israel. Accordingly, political, economic and military conditions in Israel and the surrounding region may directly affect our business and operations.
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In addition, many of our employees in Israel, including executive officers, may be called upon to perform several days of military reserve duty until they reach the age of 40 (and in some cases, depending on their military duties up to the age of 45 or even 49) and, in emergency circumstances, could be called to immediate and unlimited active duty (however, this would need to be approved by the Israeli government). In response to increases in terrorist activity, there have been periods of significant call-ups of military reservists and it is possible that there will be military reserve duty call-ups in the future. Our operations could be disrupted by such call-ups, particularly if such call-ups include the call-up of members of our management, given the current shortage of talent in Israel due to the recent acceleration of activity in startups, especially in the technology space. Such disruption could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Your rights and responsibilities as our shareholder will be governed by Israeli law, which differs in some respects from the law governing the rights and responsibilities of shareholders of U.S. and other non-Israeli corporations.
We were incorporated under Israeli law and the rights and responsibilities of our shareholders are governed by Israeli law and the Pagaya Articles as amended from time to time. These rights and responsibilities differ in some respects from the rights and responsibilities of shareholders of U.S. and other non-Israeli corporations. In particular, a shareholder of an Israeli company has a duty to act in good faith and in a customary manner in exercising its rights and performing its obligations towards the company and other shareholders and to refrain from abusing its power in the company, including, among other things, in voting at the general meeting of shareholders on certain matters, such as an amendment to the articles of association, an increase of the company’s authorized share capital, a merger of the company and approval of related party transactions that require shareholder approval. A shareholder also has a general duty to refrain from discriminating against other shareholders. In addition, a controlling shareholder or a shareholder who knows that it possesses the power to determine the outcome of a shareholders’ vote or to appoint or prevent the appointment of an office holder in the company has a duty to act in fairness towards the company. These provisions may be interpreted to impose additional obligations and liabilities on our shareholders that are not typically imposed on shareholders of U.S. and other non-Israeli corporations.
Provisions of Israeli law and the Pagaya Articles may delay, prevent, or make undesirable an acquisition of all or a significant portion of our shares or assets.
Provisions of Israeli law and the Pagaya Articles could have the effect of delaying or preventing a change in control and may make it more difficult for a third party to acquire us or our shareholders to elect different individuals to Pagaya Board, even if doing so would be considered to be beneficial by some of our shareholders, and may limit the price that investors may be willing to pay in the future for Pagaya Ordinary Shares. Among other things:
Israeli corporate law regulates mergers and requires that a tender offer be effected when more than a specified percentage of shares in a company are purchased;
Israeli corporate law requires special approvals for certain transactions involving directors, officers or significant shareholders and regulates other matters that may be relevant to these types of transactions;
Israeli corporate law does not provide for shareholder action by written consent for public companies, thereby requiring all shareholder actions to be taken at a general meeting of shareholders;
the dual class structure of Pagaya Ordinary Shares concentrates voting power with certain of our shareholders—in particular, our Founders;
the Pagaya Articles divide our directors into three classes, each of which is elected once every three years;
the Pagaya Articles generally require a vote of a majority of the voting power represented at a general meeting of the our shareholders in person or by proxy and voting thereon, as one class (a “simple majority”), and the amendment of a limited number of provisions—such as the provision regarding the size of Pagaya Board, dividing our directors into three classes, the procedures and the requirements that must be met in order for a shareholder to require us to include a matter on the agenda for a general meeting of our shareholders and the election and removal of members of Pagaya Board and empowering Pagaya Board
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to fill vacancies on Pagaya Board—require a supermajority vote of the holders of 75% of the total voting power of our shareholders if no Class B Ordinary Shares remain outstanding (or a simple majority so long as any Class B Ordinary Shares remain outstanding);
the Pagaya Articles do not permit a director who is elected as a member of one of the three staggered classes to be removed other than in the annual general meeting in which the term of such class expires, except in special circumstances of incapacity or ineligibility (and in the case of other directors, such as those appointed by Pagaya Board to fill vacancies, do not permit a director to be removed except by a vote of the holders of at least 75% of the total voting power of our shareholders if no Class B Ordinary Shares remain outstanding, or a simple majority so long as any Class B Ordinary Shares remain outstanding); and
the Pagaya Articles provide that director vacancies may be filled by the Pagaya Board.
Further, Israeli tax considerations may make potential transactions undesirable to us or some of our shareholders whose country of residence does not have a tax treaty with Israel granting tax relief to such shareholders from Israeli tax. For example, Israeli tax law does not recognize tax-free share exchanges to the same extent as U.S. tax law. With respect to mergers, Israeli tax law allows for tax deferral in certain circumstances but makes the deferral contingent on the fulfillment of numerous conditions, including, a holding period of two years from the date of the transaction during which certain sales and dispositions of shares of the participating companies are restricted. Moreover, with respect to certain share swap transactions, the tax deferral is limited in time, and when such time expires, the tax becomes payable even if no disposition of the shares has occurred.
The Pagaya Articles contain a forum selection clause for substantially all disputes between us and our shareholders, which could limit our shareholders’ ability to bring claims and proceedings against us, our directors, officers, and other employees and independent contractors. It may be difficult to enforce a U.S. judgment against us or our officers, directors or employees in Israel or the United States, to assert a U.S. securities laws claim in Israel or serve process on our officers, directors and employees.
The Pagaya Articles provide that unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the federal district courts of the United States of America shall be the exclusive forum for the resolution of any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act. Except as set forth in the preceding sentence, the Pagaya Articles also provide that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the competent courts in Tel-Aviv, Israel shall be the exclusive forum for (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought on behalf of us, (ii) any action asserting a breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any of our directors, officers or other employees to us or our shareholders or (iii) any action asserting a claim arising pursuant to any provision of the Pagaya Articles, the Israeli Companies Law, 5759-1999, as amended, and the regulations promulgated thereunder (the “Companies Law”) or the Israeli Securities Law. This exclusive forum provision is intended to apply to claims arising under Israeli law and would not apply to claims brought pursuant to the Securities Act, the Exchange Act or any other claim for which U.S. federal courts would have exclusive jurisdiction. Such exclusive forum provision in the Pagaya Articles will not relieve us of our duties to comply with U.S. federal securities laws and the rules and regulations thereunder, and our shareholders will not be deemed to have waived our compliance with these laws, rules and regulations. This exclusive forum provision may limit a shareholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum of our choosing for disputes with us or our directors, officers or other employees, which may discourage lawsuits against us, our directors, officers and employees. However, the enforceability of similar forum provisions in other companies’ organizational documents has been challenged in legal proceedings, and there is uncertainty as to whether courts would enforce the exclusive forum provisions in the Pagaya Articles.
Risks Related to Being a Public Company
Our management team has limited experience managing a public company.
Our management team has limited experience managing a publicly traded company, interacting with public company investors and complying with the increasingly complex laws pertaining to public companies. As a result, these executives may not successfully or efficiently manage their roles and responsibilities, and we are subject to significant regulatory oversight, reporting obligations under U.S. and international securities laws and the continuous scrutiny of securities analysts and investors. These obligations and constituents will require significant
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attention from our senior management and could divert their attention away from the day-to-day management of our business, which could result in less time being devoted to our management, growth and the achievement of our operational goals.
In addition, we may not have adequate personnel with the appropriate level of knowledge, experience and training in the accounting policies, practices or internal controls over financial reporting required of public companies in the United States. Since becoming a public company, we have upgraded our finance and accounting systems and related controls, and we continue to make improvements to build an enterprise system suitable for a public company. The development and implementation of the standards and controls necessary for us to achieve the level of accounting standards required of a public company in the U.S. may require costs greater than expected. We may need to significantly expand our employee and independent contractor base in order to support our operations as a public company, increasing our operating costs. Failure to adequately comply with the requirements of being a public company, could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operation.
Our internal controls over financial reporting may not be effective and our independent registered public accounting firm may not be able to certify as to our effectiveness, which could have a significant and adverse effect on our business and reputation. Our current controls and any new controls that we develop may be inadequate because of changes in conditions in our business. Further, weaknesses in our internal controls may be discovered in the future. In order to maintain and improve the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting, we have expended and anticipate that we will continue to expend significant resources, including accounting-related costs, and to provide significant management oversight. Any failure to develop or maintain effective controls, or any difficulties encountered in their implementation or improvement, could adversely affect our operating results or cause us to fail to meet our reporting obligations and may result in a restatement of our financial statements for prior periods. Ineffective disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting could also cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial and other information.
We will incur increased costs as a result of operating as a public company, and our management will devote substantial time to new compliance initiatives.
As a public company that qualifies as a foreign private issuer, we have, and will continue, to incur significant legal, accounting, and other expenses that we did not incur as a private company. See “—Our management team has limited experience managing a public company.” The costs relate to public company reporting obligations under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act, regulations regarding corporate governance practices, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, the rules of the SEC, the listing requirements of the Nasdaq, and other applicable securities rules and regulations that impose various requirements on public companies, including establishment and maintenance of effective disclosure and financial controls and corporate governance practices. These rules and regulations are often subject to varying interpretations, in many cases due to their lack of specificity, and, as a result, their application in practice may evolve over time as new guidance is provided by regulatory and governing bodies. This could result in continuing uncertainty regarding compliance matters and higher costs necessitated by ongoing revisions to disclosure and governance practices. We cannot predict or estimate the amount of additional costs we will incur as a result of recently becoming a public company or the timing of such costs. Any changes we make to comply with these obligations may not be sufficient to allow us to satisfy our obligations as a public company on a timely basis, or at all.
In addition to the above, we expect that compliance with these requirements will increase our legal and financial compliance costs. We have made, and will continue to make, changes to our financial management control systems and other areas to manage our obligations as a public company, including corporate governance, corporate controls, disclosure controls and procedures and financial reporting and accounting systems. Implementation of such changes is costly, time-consuming and, even if implemented, may not be sufficient to allow us to satisfy our obligations as a public company on a timely basis. Any failure to implement required new or improved controls, or difficulties encountered in their implementation, could cause us to fail to meet our reporting obligations.
If we fail to develop and maintain effective internal control over financial reporting, our ability to produce timely and accurate financial statements or comply with applicable laws and regulations could be impaired.
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Our management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting. Internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP.
We are required to document and test our internal controls over financial reporting pursuant to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (“Section 404”) so that our management can certify as to the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting. Likewise, our independent registered public accounting firm will be required to provide an attestation report on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting at such time as we cease to be an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the Jumpstart our Business Startups Act of 2012 (the “JOBS Act”). At such time, our independent registered public accounting firm may issue a report that is adverse if a material weakness is identified.
Neither our management nor an independent registered public accounting firm has ever performed an evaluation of our internal control over financial reporting in accordance with Section 404 because no such evaluation has been required. We expect to be required, pursuant to Section 404, to furnish a report by management on, among other things, the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting for the fiscal year ending December 31, 2023. In addition, our independent registered public accounting firm will be required to attest to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting in our first annual report required to be filed with the SEC following the date on which we are no longer an emerging growth company. We have commenced the costly and challenging process of compiling the system and processing documentation necessary to perform the evaluation needed to comply with Section 404, but we may not be able to complete our evaluation, testing and any required remediation in a timely fashion. Our compliance with Section 404 requires that we incur substantial expenses and expend significant management efforts. We have needed to and may continue to need to hire additional accounting and financial staff with appropriate public company experience and technical accounting knowledge and compile the system and process documentation necessary to perform the evaluation needed to comply with Section 404. If we or our accounting firm identify deficiencies in our internal control over financial reporting that are deemed to be material weaknesses, it could harm our operating results, adversely affect our reputation, or result in inaccurate financial reporting. Furthermore, should any such deficiencies arise we could be subject to lawsuits, sanctions or investigations by regulatory authorities, including SEC enforcement actions, and we could be required to restate our financial results, any of which would require additional financial and management resources.
As a foreign private issuer, we are not subject to U.S. proxy rules and are not subject to certain Exchange Act reporting obligations that, to some extent, are more lenient and less frequent than those of a U.S. domestic public company.
We report under the Exchange Act as a non-U.S. company with foreign private issuer status and are therefore exempt from certain rules under the Exchange Act that are applicable to U.S. domestic reporting companies. Because we qualify as a foreign private issuer under the Exchange Act and although we furnish quarterly financial information to the SEC, we are exempt from certain provisions of the Exchange Act that are applicable to U.S. domestic public companies, including (i) the sections of the Exchange Act regulating the solicitation of proxies, consents or authorizations in respect of a security registered under the Exchange Act; (ii) the sections of the Exchange Act requiring insiders to file public reports of their stock ownership and trading activities and liability for insiders who profit from trades made in a short period of time; and (iii) the rules under the Exchange Act requiring the filing with the SEC of quarterly reports on Form 10-Q containing unaudited financial and other specified information, or current reports on Form 8-K, upon the occurrence of specified significant events. In addition, foreign private issuers are not required to file their annual report on Form 20-F until four months after the end of each fiscal year, while U.S. domestic issuers that are nonaccelerated filers are required to file their annual report on Form 10-K within 90 days after the end of each fiscal year. Foreign private issuers are also exempt from the Regulation Fair Disclosure, aimed at preventing issuers from making selective disclosures of material information. As a result of the above, our shareholders may not have the same protections afforded to shareholders of companies that are not foreign private issuers.
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As we are a “foreign private issuer” and follow certain home country corporate governance practices, our shareholders may not have the same protections afforded to shareholders of companies that are subject to all Nasdaq corporate governance requirements.
As a “foreign private issuer” with ordinary shares listed on Nasdaq, we are permitted to follow certain home country corporate governance practices instead of those otherwise required under the corporate governance standards For U.S. domestic issuers. For any home country corporate governance practices we follow, we are required to disclose the Nasdaq requirement that we are not following and describe the equivalent home country practice we are following instead. We currently follow home country practices with regard to (i) independent director oversight requirement for director nominations (the board as a whole, rather than an entirely independent nominating committee or only the independent directors, handles this process under Israeli law), (ii) quorum requirement for shareholder meeting quorums (25%, which is less than the one-third minimum required under the Nasdaq rules) and (iii) shareholder approval for certain transactions other than a public offering involving issuances of 20% or more interest in the company (Nasdaq listing rule 5635(d))(no shareholder approval is required for such issuances under Israeli law). See “Item 16.G.—Corporate Governance” in our annual report on Form 20-F filed with the SEC on April 20, 2023. Furthermore, we may in the future elect to follow Israeli home country practices in lieu of the Nasdaq requirements on other matters, such as having a majority of our board of directors be independent, establishing a nominating/governance committee,) holding regular executive sessions where only independent directors may be present, or to obtain shareholder approval for certain future dilutive events (such as for the establishment or amendment of certain equity-based compensation plans, issuances that will result in a change of control of the company and certain acquisitions of the stock or assets of another company). Accordingly, our shareholders may not be afforded the same protection as provided under Nasdaq corporate governance requirements as a U.S. domestic company and foreign private issuer who does not utilize home country practices. Following our home country governance practices as opposed to the requirements that would otherwise apply to a U.S. company listed on Nasdaq may provide less protection than is accorded to investors of domestic issuers.
Pagaya may lose its foreign private issuer status in the future, which could result in significant additional costs and expenses.
As discussed above, Pagaya is a “foreign private issuer”, and therefore is not required to comply with all of the periodic disclosure and current reporting requirements of the Exchange Act. The determination of foreign private issuer status is made annually on the last business day of an issuer’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, and, accordingly, the next determination will be made with respect to Pagaya on June 30, 2023. In the future, Pagaya would lose its “foreign private issuer” status if more than 50% of our outstanding voting securities become directly or indirectly held of record by U.S. Holders and any one of the following is true: (i) the majority of our directors or executive officers are U.S. citizens or residents; (ii) more than 50% of our assets are located in the United States; or (iii) our business is administered principally in the United States. If we lose our “foreign private issuer” status, we will be required to file with the SEC periodic reports and registration statements on U.S. domestic issuer forms, which are more detailed and extensive than the forms available to a foreign private issuer. We would also have to comply with U.S. federal proxy requirements, and our officers, directors and principal shareholders will become subject to the short-swing profit disclosure and recovery provisions of Section 16 of the Exchange Act. In addition, we would lose our ability to rely upon exemptions from certain corporate governance requirements under the listing rules of Nasdaq. As a U.S. listed public company that is not a foreign private issuer, we would incur significant additional legal, accounting and other expenses that we do not incur as a foreign private issuer. In addition, members of our management would likely have to divert time and resources from other responsibilities to ensuring these additional regulatory requirements are fulfilled.
We are an “emerging growth company” and as a result of the reduced disclosure and governance requirements applicable to emerging growth companies, Class A Ordinary Shares may be less attractive to investors.
We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the JOBS Act, and we intend to take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies including, but not limited to, not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. We cannot predict if investors will find Class A Ordinary Shares less attractive because we will rely on these exemptions, which permit delaying adoption of new or revised
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accounting standards until such time as those standards apply to us and reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation. If some investors find Class A Ordinary Shares less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market and our stock price may be more volatile. We may take advantage of these reporting exemptions until we are no longer an “emerging growth company.” We will remain an “emerging growth company” until the earlier of (1) the last day of the fiscal year (a) following the fifth anniversary of the completion of the initial public offering of EJFA, which closed on March 1, 2021 (the “EJFA IPO”), (b) in which we have total annual gross revenues of at least $1.235 billion, or (c) in which we are deemed to be a large accelerated filer, which means the market value of Pagaya Ordinary Shares that are held by non-affiliates exceeds $700 million as of the last day of the second fiscal quarter of such fiscal year, and (2) the date on which we have issued more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt during the prior three-year period.
Concentration of voting power among certain Shareholders, namely our Founders, will limit other stockholders’ ability to influence corporate matters and delay or prevent a third party from acquiring control over us.
Our Founders beneficially own, in the aggregate, Ordinary Shares comprising approximately 77.6% of outstanding voting power as of March 31, 2023. This significant concentration of voting power may have a negative impact on the trading price for our Class A Ordinary Shares because investors often perceive disadvantages in owning stock in companies where there is a concentration of ownership in a small number of shareholders. In addition, these shareholders will be able to exercise influence over all matters requiring stockholder approval, including the election of directors and approval of corporate transactions, such as a merger or other sale of us or our assets. This concentration of ownership could limit other stockholders’ ability to influence corporate matters and may have the effect of delaying or preventing a change in control, including a merger, consolidation or other business combination, or discouraging a potential acquirer from making a tender offer or otherwise attempting to obtain control, even if that change in control would benefit the other stockholders.
We do not intend to pay cash dividends for the foreseeable future.
We currently intend to retain our future earnings, if any, to finance the further development and expansion of our business and do not intend to pay cash dividends to shareholders in the foreseeable future. Any future determination to pay dividends will be at the discretion of Pagaya Board and will depend on our financial condition, results of operations, capital requirements, restrictions contained in the Companies Law and in future agreements and financing instruments, business prospects and such other factors as Pagaya Board deems relevant. As a result, you may not receive any return on an investment in Class A Ordinary Shares unless you sell Class A Ordinary Shares for a price greater than that which you paid for them.
If analysts do not publish research about our business or if they publish inaccurate or unfavorable research, our share price and trading volume could decline.
The trading market for Class A Ordinary Shares will depend in part on the research and reports that analysts publish about our business. We do not have any control over these analysts. If one or more of the analysts who cover us downgrade Class A Ordinary Shares or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, the price of Class A Ordinary Shares may decline. If few analysts cover us, demand for Class A Ordinary Shares could decrease, and the trading volume of Class A Ordinary Shares trading volume may decline. Similar results may occur if one or more of these analysts stop covering us in the future or fail to publish reports on us regularly.
Risks Related to Ownership of our Class A Ordinary Shares and Warrants
The price of the Class A Ordinary Shares and the price of the public warrants have been and may continue to be volatile.
The price of our Class A Ordinary Shares, as well as the price of the public warrants, have been and may continue to be volatile in the future. Our Class A Ordinary Shares and public warrants began trading on Nasdaq on June 23, 2022 and as such, are newly listed, have a limited public float and a short trading history to date. On August 2, 2022, the Class A Ordinary Shares experienced an intra-day trading high of $34.50 per share and a low of $25.50 per share. In addition, from June 23, 2022 to April 28, 2023, the closing price of Class A Ordinary Shares on Nasdaq ranged from as low as $0.57 to as high as $29.95 and daily trading volume ranged from approximately 51,333 to
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66,396,600 shares. During this time, we have not experienced any material changes in our financial condition or results of operations that would explain such price volatility or trading volume. These broad market fluctuations may adversely affect the trading price of the Class A Ordinary Shares. In particular, a large proportion of the Class A Ordinary Shares have been and may continue to be traded by short sellers which has put and may continue to put pressure on the supply and demand for the Class A Ordinary Shares, further influencing volatility in its market price. In addition, these and other external factors have caused and may continue to cause the market price and demand for the Class A Ordinary Shares to fluctuate substantially, which may limit or prevent our shareholders from readily selling their Class A Ordinary Shares and may otherwise negatively affect the liquidity of the Class A Ordinary Shares.
The price of Class A Ordinary Shares and the price of the public warrants may fluctuate due to a variety of factors, including, without limitation:
“short squeezes”;
comments by securities analysts or other third parties, including blogs, articles, message boards and social and other media;
changes in the industries in which we and our Partners operate;
developments involving our competitors;
changes in laws and regulations affecting our business;
variations in our operating performance and the performance of our competitors in general;
actual or anticipated fluctuations in our quarterly or annual operating results;
publication of research reports by securities analysts about us or our competitors or our industry;
the public’s reaction to our press releases, our other public announcements and our filings with the SEC;
operational impacts resulting from a reduction of workforce;
actions by shareholders, including the sale by PIPE Investors of any of their Class A Ordinary Shares or a sale by shareholders should the removal of the restrictions based on the lock-up provision in the EJFA Merger be accelerated, or an increase or decrease in the short interest in Class A Ordinary Shares;
additions and departures of key personnel;
commencement of, or involvement in, litigation by or against Pagaya;
changes in our capital structure, such as future issuances of equity securities or the incurrence of debt;
the volume of Class A Ordinary Shares available for public sale; and
general economic and political conditions, such as economic recessions or slowdowns, interest rates, unemployment levels, conditions in the housing market, immigration policies, government shutdowns, trade wars and delays in tax refunds, as well as events such as natural disasters, acts of war, terrorism, catastrophes and pandemics.
These market and industry factors may materially reduce the market price of Class A Ordinary Shares and public warrants regardless of our operating performance.
Our stock price has been and may continue to be volatile.
Our stock price has exhibited substantial volatility. Our stock price may continue to fluctuate in response to a number of events and factors, such as quarterly operating results; changes in our financial projections provided to the public or our failure to meet those projections; changes in the credit performance on our platform; the public’s
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reaction to our press releases, other public announcements and filings with the SEC; progress and resolution with respect to existing litigation and regulatory inquiries; significant transactions or acquisitions; new features, products or services offered by us or our competitors; changes in financial estimates and recommendations by securities analysts; media coverage of our business and financial performance; the operating and stock price performance of, or other developments involving, other companies that stockholders may deem comparable to us; trends in our industry; any significant change in our management; and general economic conditions.
In addition, the stock market in general, and the market prices for companies in our industry, have experienced volatility. These broad market and industry fluctuations may adversely affect the price of our stock, regardless of our operating performance. Price volatility over a given period may cause the price of any repurchase of our own stock to exceed the stock’s price at a given point in time. Volatility in our stock price also impacts the value of our equity compensation, which affects our ability to recruit and retain employees. In addition, some companies that have experienced volatility in the market price of their stock, including us, have been subject to securities class action litigation. We have been the target of this type of litigation and may continue to be a target in the future. Securities litigation against us could result in substantial costs and divert our management’s attention from other business concerns, which could harm our business.
Further, our stock could be the target of short sellers who may seek to drive down the price of shares they have sold short by disseminating negative reports or information about the Company. Such negative publicity may lead to additional public scrutiny or may cause further volatility in our stock price, a decline in the value of a stockholder’s investment in us or reputational harm.
Any stock price decline could have a material adverse impact on stockholder confidence and employee retention.
Information available in public media that is published by third parties, including blogs, articles, message boards and social and other media, may include statements not attributable to us and may not be reliable or accurate.
We have received, and may continue to receive, an increasing degree of media coverage that is published or otherwise disseminated by third parties, including blogs, articles, message boards and social and other media. This includes coverage that is not attributable to statements made by our officers or associates. Information provided by third parties may not be reliable or accurate and could materially impact the trading price of the Class A Ordinary Shares which could result in a substantial decrease in the value of shareholders’ investments.
There can be no assurance that we will be able to comply with the continued listing standards of Nasdaq.
If we fail to satisfy the continued listing requirements of Nasdaq such as the corporate governance requirements, the minimum share price requirement or failure to be timely with our SEC filings, Nasdaq may take steps to delist our securities. Such a delisting would likely have a negative effect on the price of the securities and would impair your ability to sell or purchase the securities when you wish to do so. In the event of a delisting, we can provide no assurance that any action taken by us to restore compliance with listing requirements would allow our securities to become listed again, stabilize the market price or improve the liquidity of our securities, prevent our securities from dropping below the Nasdaq minimum share price requirement or prevent future non-compliance with Nasdaq’s listing requirements. Additionally, if our securities are not listed on, or become delisted from, Nasdaq for any reason, and are quoted on the OTC Bulletin Board, an inter-dealer automated quotation system for equity securities that is not a national securities exchange, the liquidity and price of our securities may be more limited than if we were quoted or listed on Nasdaq or another national securities exchange. You may be unable to sell your securities unless a market can be established or sustained.
Sales of our securities, or the perception of such sales, by us or holders of our securities in the public market or otherwise could cause the market price for our securities to decline and even in such case certain holders of our securities may still have an incentive to sell our securities.
The sale of our securities in the public market or otherwise, or the perception that such sales could occur, could harm the prevailing market price of shares of our securities. These sales, or the possibility that these sales may occur, also might make it more difficult for us to sell securities in the future at a time and at a price that it deems
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appropriate. Resales of our securities may cause the market price of our securities to drop significantly, even if our business is doing well.
The market price of our Class A Ordinary Shares could decline if holders of our shares sell them, including pursuant to the resale registration statements, or are perceived by the market as intending to sell them. As such, sales of a substantial number of Class A Ordinary Shares in the public market could occur at any time. These sales, or the perception in the market that the holders of a large number of shares intend to sell shares, could reduce the market price of our Class A Ordinary Shares.
Pursuant to registration rights we have with certain holders of our securities, we filed a registration statement, which was declared effective on December 6, 2022, which covers the resale of up to an aggregate of 676,627,977 Class A Ordinary Shares by the selling shareholders named therein and the primary issuance of (1) 9,583,333 Class A Ordinary Shares issuable upon exercise of the public warrants, (2) 5,166,667 Class A Ordinary Shares issuable upon exercise of the private placement warrants issued and exchanged for the private placement warrants of EJFA the “EJFA Private Placement Warrants”) in the EJFA Merger and (3) 31,350,020 Class A Ordinary Shares issuable upon exercise of other private placement warrants. The number of Class A Ordinary Shares registered for resale under the registration statement exceeds the number of Class A Ordinary Shares constituting our public float and represents approximately 234% of our public float and approximately 72% of outstanding Class A Ordinary Shares (after giving effect to the issuance of Class A Ordinary Shares upon exercise of the public warrants and private placement warrants and the conversion of Class B Ordinary Shares into Class A Ordinary Shares) as of March 31, 2023. In addition, in connection with the acquisition of Darwin, we entered into a registration rights agreement with the Darwin Equityholders whereby we agreed to use our commercially reasonable efforts to file a registration statement to cover the resale of up to 18,364,138 Class A Ordinary Shares issued to Darwin Equityholders, and to use our commercially reasonable efforts to have such registration statement declared effective as soon as is reasonably practicable after the filing thereof. Any of these resales or issuances upon exercise of the Warrants, or the perception in the market that the holders of a large number of shares intend to resell shares, could cause the market price of our securities to decline or increase the volatility in the market price of our securities.
In addition, on August 17, 2022, we entered into the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement and the Equity Financing Registration Rights Agreement with B. Riley Principal Capital II. Pursuant to the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement, subject to the satisfaction of the conditions set forth in the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement, we have the right to sell to B. Riley Principal Capital II up to $300 million of our Class A Ordinary Shares, subject to certain limitations and conditions set forth in the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement, from time to time during the 24-month term of the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement. We filed a registration statement, which was declared effective on December 6, 2022, to register the resale of up to 40,139,607 Class A Ordinary Shares, which represent (a) up to 139,607 Class A Ordinary Shares that we issued or may issue to B. Riley Principal Capital II pursuant to the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement in consideration of its commitment to purchase our Class A Ordinary Shares at our election under the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement and (b) 40,000,000 Class A Ordinary Shares we may elect in our sole discretion to issue and sell to B. Riley Principal Capital II under the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement from time to time. Given this substantial number of shares available for resale, the sale of shares by such holders, or the perception in the market that holders of a large number of shares intend to sell shares, could increase the volatility of the market price of our Class A Ordinary Shares or result in a significant decline in the public trading price of our Class A Ordinary Shares. Further, the purchase price for the shares that we may sell to B. Riley Principal Capital II under our committed equity financing will fluctuate based on the price of our Class A Ordinary Shares. Depending on market liquidity at the time, sales of such shares may cause the trading price of our Class A Ordinary Shares to fall. If and when we do sell Class A Ordinary Shares to B. Riley Principal Capital II, after B. Riley Principal Capital II has acquired the Class A Ordinary Shares, B. Riley Principal Capital II may resell all, some, or none of those shares at any time or from time to time in its discretion. Therefore, sales to B. Riley Principal Capital II by us could result in substantial dilution to the interests of other holders of our Class A Ordinary Shares. Additionally, the sale of a substantial number of shares of our Class A Ordinary Shares to B. Riley Principal Capital II, or the anticipation of such sales, could make it more difficult for us to sell equity or equity-related securities in the future at a time and at a price that we might otherwise wish to effect sales. The decision to sell any shares of our Class A Ordinary Shares to sell to B. Riley Principal Capital II under the committed equity financing will depend on market conditions, the trading prices of our Class A Ordinary Shares and other considerations, and we cannot guarantee the extent to which we may utilize the committed equity financing.
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We may issue additional Class A Ordinary Shares from time to time, including under our equity incentive plans. Any such issuances would dilute the interest of our shareholders and likely present other risks.
We may issue additional Class A Ordinary Shares from time to time, including under our equity incentive plans or as part of an acquisition.
Class A Ordinary Shares reserved for future issuance under our equity incentive plans will become eligible for sale in the public market once those shares are issued, subject to provisions relating to time-based and performance-based vesting conditions, lock-up agreements and, in some cases, limitations on volume and manner of sale applicable to affiliates under Rule 144, as applicable. We filed a registration statement on Form S-8 under the Securities Act, which became effective on June 21, 2022, to register the issuance of 103,469,303 Class A Ordinary Shares issuable under the Pagaya Technologies, Inc. 2016 Equity Incentive Plan and Stock Option Sub-Plan for United States Persons, 259,506,365 Class A Ordinary Shares issuable under the Pagaya Technologies Ltd. 2021 Equity Incentive Plan and Stock Option Sub-Plan for United States Persons and 116,468,000 Class A Ordinary Shares issuable pursuant to Pagaya Technologies Ltd. 2022 Share Incentive Plan. In addition, we may file one or more registration statements on Form S-8 under the Securities Act to register additional Class A Ordinary Shares or securities convertible into or exchangeable for Class A Ordinary Shares issued pursuant to our equity incentive plans. Any future Form S-8 registration statements will automatically become effective upon filing. Accordingly, shares registered under such registration statements may be immediately available for sale in the open market.
Because our decision to issue additional equity securities or debt securities in the future will depend on market conditions and other factors beyond our control, we cannot predict or estimate the amount, timing, nature or success of our future capital raising efforts. As a result, future capital raising efforts may reduce the market price of Class A Ordinary Shares and be dilutive to existing shareholders. In addition, our ability to raise additional capital through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities could be significantly impacted by the resale of our securities by certain selling securityholders pursuant to the prospectus filed with the SEC on December 6, 2022 which could result in a significant decline in the trading price of our Class A Ordinary Shares and potentially hinder our ability to raise capital at terms that are acceptable to us or at all. In addition, a significant decline in the trading price of our Class A Ordinary Shares could potentially impact our ability to use equity securities as consideration in acquisitions.
Our public warrants and the private placement warrants that were issued and exchanged for EJFA Private Placement Warrants are exercisable for Class A Ordinary Shares, the exercise of which would increase the number of shares eligible for future resale in the public market and result in dilution to our shareholders.
Our public warrants to purchase an aggregate of 9,583,333 Class A Ordinary Shares and the private placement warrants to purchase 5,166,667 shares of Class A Ordinary Shares that were issued and exchanged for EJFA Private Placement Warrants became exercisable on July 22, 2022 in accordance with the terms of a warrant agreement (as assigned, assumed and amended, the “warrant agreement”) between Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company (“Continental”), as warrant agent, and EJFA, that was assumed by us pursuant to an assignment, assumption and amendment agreement in connection with the EJFA Merger. The exercise price of these warrants is $11.50 per share, or approximately $169.6 million in the aggregate, assuming none of the warrants are exercised through “cashless” exercise. As long as we have an effective registration statement covering the issuance of the Class A Ordinary Shares issuable upon exercise of the public warrants, the public warrants may only be exercised for cash. The private placement warrants that were issued and exchanged for EJFA Private Placement Warrants may be exercised on a “cashless” basis by the Sponsor (defined hereunder) or its permitted transferees and on the same basis as the public warrants if held by holders other than the Sponsor or its permitted transferees. To the extent such warrants are exercised, additional Class A Ordinary Shares will be issued, which will result in dilution to the holders of Class A Ordinary Shares and will increase the number of shares eligible for resale in the public market. We believe the likelihood that warrant holders will exercise their warrants, and therefore the amount of cash proceeds that we would receive, is dependent upon the trading price of our Class A Ordinary Shares. If the trading price for our Class A Ordinary Shares is less than $11.50 per share, we believe holders of our public warrants and private placement warrants that were issued and exchanged for EJFA Private Placement Warrants will be unlikely to exercise their warrants on a cash basis. On April 28, 2023, the last reported sales price of our Class A Ordinary Shares was $0.867 per share and the last reported sales price of our public warrants was $0.0805 per warrant. Sales
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of substantial numbers of such shares in the public market or the fact that such warrants may be exercised could adversely affect the market price of our Class A Ordinary Shares.
The warrant agreement provides that the terms of the public warrants may be amended without the consent of any holder to cure any ambiguity or correct any defective provision or correct any mistake, or adding or changing any other provision as deemed necessary or desirable by the parties but that shall not adversely affect the rights of the warrant holders. However, the warrant agreement requires the approval by the holders of at least 50% of the then-outstanding public warrants to make any change that adversely affects the interests of the registered holders of public warrants. Accordingly, we may amend the terms of the public warrants in a manner adverse to a holder if holders of at least 50% of the then-outstanding public warrants approve of such amendment. Although our ability to amend the terms of the public warrants with the consent of at least 50% of the then-outstanding public warrants is unlimited, examples of such amendments could be amendments to, among other things, increase the exercise price of the public warrants, convert the public warrants into cash, shorten the exercise period or decrease the number of Class A Ordinary Shares purchasable upon exercise of a public warrant.
The public warrants may never be in the money, and they may expire worthless and the terms of the public warrants may be amended in a manner adverse to a holder if holders of at least 50% of the then outstanding public warrants approve of such amendment.
The exercise price for our public warrants is $11.50 per Class A Ordinary Share. We believe the likelihood that warrant holders will exercise their public warrants, and therefore the amount of cash proceeds that we would receive, is dependent upon the trading price of our Class A Ordinary Shares. If the trading price for our Class A Ordinary Shares is less than $11.50 per share, we believe warrant holders will be unlikely to exercise their public warrants.
Under certain circumstances, we may redeem your unexpired public warrants prior to their exercise at a time that is disadvantageous to the holder, thereby making such public warrants worthless.
We have the ability to redeem outstanding public warrants at any time after they become exercisable and prior to their expiration, at a price of $0.01 per warrant, provided that the last reported sales price of Class A Ordinary Shares equals or exceeds $18.00 per share (as adjusted for share subdivisions, share dividends, rights issuances, subdivisions, reorganizations, recapitalizations and the like) for any 20 trading days within a 30 trading-day period ending on the third trading day prior to the date we send the notice of redemption to the warrant holders. If and when the public warrants become redeemable by us, we may exercise our redemption right even if we are unable to register or qualify the underlying securities for sale under all applicable state securities laws. Redemption of the outstanding public warrants could force you to: (i) exercise your public warrants and pay the exercise price therefore at a time when it may be disadvantageous for you to do so; (ii) sell your public warrants at the then-current market price when you might otherwise wish to hold your public warrants; or (iii) accept the nominal redemption price which, at the time the outstanding public warrants are called for redemption, is likely to be substantially less than the market value of your public warrants.
In addition, we may redeem your public warrants at any time after they become exercisable and prior to their expiration at a price of $0.10 per warrant upon a minimum of 30 days’ prior written notice of redemption provided that holders will be able to exercise their public warrants prior to redemption for a number of Class A Ordinary Shares determined based on the redemption date and the fair market value of our Class A Ordinary Shares.
The value received upon exercise of the public warrants (1) may be less than the value the holders would have received if they had exercised their warrants at a later time where the underlying share price is higher and (2) may not compensate the holders for the value of the public warrants, including because the number of Class A Ordinary Shares received is capped at 0.361 share of Class A Ordinary Share per warrant (subject to adjustment) irrespective of the remaining life of the warrants. None of the private placement warrants that were issued and exchanged for EJFA Private Placement Warrants will be redeemable by us, subject to certain circumstances, so long as they are held by Wilson Boulevard LLC, a Delaware limited liability company (the “EJFA Merger Sponsor”) or its permitted transferees.
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The warrant agreement designates the courts of the State of New York or the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York as the sole and exclusive forum for certain types of actions and proceedings that may be initiated by holders of warrants, which could limit the ability of warrant holders to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us.
The warrant agreement provides that, subject to applicable law, (i) any action, proceeding or claim against us arising out of or relating in any way to the warrant agreement, including under the Securities Act, will be brought and enforced in the courts of the State of New York or the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York, and (ii) that we irrevocably submit to such jurisdiction, which jurisdiction will be the exclusive forum for any such action, proceeding or claim. Under the warrant agreement, we also agree that we will waive any objection to such exclusive jurisdiction and that such courts represent an inconvenient forum.
Notwithstanding the foregoing, these provisions of the warrant agreement do not apply to suits brought to enforce any liability or duty created by the Exchange Act or any other claim for which the federal district courts of the United States of America are the sole and exclusive forum. Any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring any interest in any of the public warrants will be deemed to have notice of and to have consented to the forum provisions in our warrant agreement.
If any action, the subject matter of which is within the scope of the forum provisions of the warrant agreement, is filed in a court other than a court of the State of New York or the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York (a “foreign action”) in the name of any holder of the public warrants, such holder will be deemed to have consented to: (x) the personal jurisdiction of the state and federal courts located in the State of New York in connection with any action brought in any such court to enforce the forum provisions (an “enforcement action”), and (y) having service of process made upon such warrant holder in any such enforcement action by service upon such warrant holder’s counsel in the foreign action as agent for such warrant holder.
This choice-of-forum provision may limit a warrant holder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with our company, which may discourage such lawsuits. Alternatively, if a court were to find this provision of our warrant agreement inapplicable or unenforceable with respect to one or more of the specified types of actions or proceedings, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such matters in other jurisdictions, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations and result in a diversion of the time and resources of our management and board of directors.
Future offerings of debt or equity securities may adversely affect the market price of our Class A Ordinary Shares.
In the future, we may attempt to increase our capital resources by making offerings of debt or additional offerings of equity securities, including senior or subordinated notes and classes of preferred shares. For example, on August 17, 2022, we entered into the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement and the Equity Financing Registration Rights Agreement with B. Riley Principal Capital II. Pursuant to the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement, we have the right to sell to B. Riley Principal Capital II, LLC up to $300,000,000 of our Class A Ordinary Shares, subject to certain limitations and conditions set forth in that agreement, and we have filed a registration statement on Form F-1 relating to this offer and sale. If we decide to issue senior securities in the future, it is likely that they will be governed by an indenture or other instrument containing covenants restricting our operating flexibility. Holders of senior securities may be granted specific rights, including the right to hold a perfected security interest in certain of our assets, the right to accelerate payments due under an indenture, rights to restrict dividend payments, and rights to require approval to sell assets. Additionally, any convertible or exchangeable securities that we issue in the future may have rights, preferences, and privileges more favorable than those of Class A Ordinary Shares and may result in dilution for the owners of our Class A Ordinary Shares. We and, indirectly, our shareholders, will bear the cost of issuing and servicing such securities. Upon liquidation, holders of our debt securities and preferred shares, and lenders with respect to other borrowings, will receive a distribution of our available assets prior to the holders of the Class A Ordinary Shares. Additional equity offerings may dilute the holdings of our existing shareholders or reduce the market price of the Class A Ordinary Shares, or both. Any preferred shares we issue in the future could have a preference on liquidating distributions or a preference on dividend payments that could limit our ability to make a dividend distribution to the holders of our Class A Ordinary Shares. Because our decision to issue securities in any
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future offering will depend on market conditions and other factors beyond our control, we cannot predict or estimate the amount, timing, or nature of our future offerings. Thus, holders of our Class A Ordinary Shares bear the risk of our future offerings reducing the market price of Class A Ordinary Shares and diluting their shareholdings in us.
An active public trading market for our Class A Ordinary Shares may not develop or be sustained to provide adequate liquidity.
An active public trading market for our Class A Ordinary Shares may not develop or, if developed, may not be sustained. The lack of an active market may impair your ability to sell your Class A Ordinary Shares at the time you wish to sell them or at a price that you consider reasonable. The lack of an active market may also reduce the fair value of your Class A Ordinary Shares. An inactive market may also impair our ability to raise capital by selling Class A Ordinary Shares and may impair our ability to acquire other companies by using our shares as consideration.
Risks Related to Tax
There can be no assurances that we will not be a passive foreign investment company for any taxable year, which could subject U.S. Holders to significant adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences.
If we are or become a PFIC within the meaning of section 1297 of the U.S. Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”) for any taxable year during which a U.S. Holder (as defined in the section titled “U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations”) holds Class A Ordinary Shares, certain adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences may apply to such U.S. Holder. A non-U.S. corporation will generally be treated as a “passive foreign investment company,” or a PFIC, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, in any taxable year if either (1) at least 75% of its gross income for such year is passive income (such as interest, dividends, rents and royalties (other than rents or royalties derived from the active conduct of a trade or business) and gains from the disposition of assets giving rise to passive income) or (2) at least 50% of the value of its assets (based on an average of the quarterly values of the assets) during such year is attributable to assets that produce or are held for the production of passive income.
We do not believe that we were a PFIC for our taxable year ended December 31, 2022. However, PFIC status depends on the composition of a company’s income and assets and the fair market value of its assets (including goodwill) from time to time, as well as on the application of complex statutory and regulatory rules that are subject to potentially varying or changing interpretations. Accordingly, there can be no assurance that we will not be treated as a PFIC for any taxable year and our U.S. counsel expresses no opinion regarding our PFIC status for any taxable year.
If we were to be treated as a PFIC, a U.S. Holder of Class A Ordinary Shares may be subject to adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences, such as taxation at the highest marginal ordinary income tax rates on capital gains and on certain actual or deemed distributions, interest charges on certain taxes treated as deferred and additional reporting requirements. See “U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Passive foreign investment company considerations.
If we become a controlled foreign corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, there could be adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences to certain U.S. shareholders.
If a U.S. person is treated as owning (directly, indirectly, or constructively) at least 10 percent of the value or voting power of Class A Ordinary Shares, such person may be treated as a “U.S. shareholder” with respect to each of us and any of our direct and indirect foreign affiliates that is a “controlled foreign corporation” (“CFC”) for U.S. federal income tax purposes. If we have a U.S. subsidiary, certain of our non-U.S. subsidiaries could be treated as CFCs (regardless of whether or not we are treated as a CFC). A U.S. shareholder of a CFC may be required to report annually and include in its U.S. taxable income its pro rata share of “subpart F income,” “global intangible low-taxed income,” and investments in U.S. property by CFCs, regardless of whether we make any distributions. Individual U.S. shareholders of a CFC are generally not allowed certain tax deductions or foreign tax credits that are allowed to corporate U.S. shareholders. Failure to comply with applicable reporting obligations may subject a U.S. shareholder to significant monetary penalties and may prevent the statute of limitations with respect to such shareholder’s U.S. federal income tax return for the year for which reporting was due from starting. We cannot
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provide any assurance that we will assist investors in determining whether we or any of our non-U.S. subsidiaries is treated as a CFC, whether any investor is treated as a U.S. shareholder with respect to any such CFC or furnish to any U.S. shareholders information that may be necessary to comply with the aforementioned reporting and tax paying obligations. Each U.S. investor should consult its advisors regarding the potential application of these rules to an investment in Class A Ordinary Shares.
We and the Financing Vehicles are subject to tax laws, tariffs and potential tax audits in multiple jurisdictions that could affect our financial results.
We and the Financing Vehicles are subject to tax laws, tariffs and potential tax audits in multiple jurisdictions. The application and interpretation of these laws in different jurisdictions affect our international operations in complex ways and are subject to change, and some changes may be retroactively applied. Our tax liabilities in the different countries where we operate depend, in part, on transfer pricing and administrative charges among us and our subsidiaries. These arrangements require us to make judgments with which tax authorities may disagree, potentially resulting in the assessment of material additional taxes, penalties, interest or other charges to resolve these issues.
The combination of the above factors may lead to an increased likelihood of tax audits with respect, among other things, to: (i) tax residence, (ii) trade or business activities and/or permanent establishment status in various jurisdictions, (iii) transfer pricing, (iv) CFC legislation, (v) taxation of dividends and capital gains derived upon interests held in companies located in low-tax jurisdictions, (vi) withholding tax application on cross-border payments, and (vii) anti-hybrid mismatches. In any such case, depending on the specific circumstances, tax audits and/or tax litigation with the tax authorities could result in tax liabilities and fines and penalties of significant amounts, which could be in excess of the amounts we provide for in our financial statements for tax liabilities.
Transactions, including those with Financing Vehicles, that we have structured in light of current tax rules could have material and adverse consequences for us if tax rules change or if tax authorities apply or interpret the rules differently than we do. Changes in tax laws, their application and interpretation or imposition of any new or increased tariffs, duties and taxes could increase our tax burden, materially and adversely affect our sales, profits and financial condition and have an adverse effect on our business, net assets, or results of operations. Such factors could also cause us to expend significant time and resources and/or cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information.
Changes in tax laws and unanticipated tax liabilities could adversely affect our financial results.
New tax laws, statutes, rules, regulations, or ordinances could be enacted at any time. Further, existing tax laws, statutes, rules, regulations, or ordinances could be interpreted differently, changed, repealed, or modified at any time. Many of the countries in which we do business have or are expected to adopt changes to tax laws, including as a result of the Base Erosion and Profit Shifting final proposals from the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development and specific country anti-avoidance initiatives. For instance, the United States Inflation Reduction Act imposes, among other rules, a 15% minimum tax on the book income of certain large corporations and a 1% excise tax on certain corporate stock repurchases. Such tax law changes increase uncertainty and may adversely affect our tax provision, possibly with retroactive effect. We regularly assesses all of these matters to determine the adequacy of its tax provision, which is subject to significant judgment.
Risks Related to R&D
We depend on highly skilled personnel to enhance our product and grow our business, and if we are unable to hire, integrate and retain our personnel, we may not be able to address competitive challenges and continue our rapid growth.
Our future success and ability to maintain effective growth will depend upon our continued ability to hire, integrate and retain highly skilled personnel, including senior management, engineers, designers, developers, product managers, customer care representatives and finance and legal personnel. In addition to hiring and integrating new employees, we must continue to focus on retaining our best employees who foster and promote our innovative corporate culture.
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In order to remain competitive, we must continue to develop new solutions, applications and enhancements to our existing platform, which requires us to compete with many other companies for software developers with high levels of experience in designing, developing, and managing cloud-based software. Our principal research and development activities are conducted from our headquarters in Tel Aviv, Israel, and we face significant competition for suitably skilled developers in this region.
If we do not continue to innovate and provide a platform, and improved policy model, that is useful to our customers, we may not remain competitive, and our revenue and operating results could suffer.
Our success depends on continued innovation to provide features and better performance that will make our platform useful for our customers and partners, and our ability to persuade existing customers to expand their use of our platform to additional use cases and additional applications. We must continue to invest significant resources in research and development in order to continually improve the speed and power of our platform. We may introduce significant changes to our platform or develop and introduce new and unproven products, including using technologies with which we have little or no prior development or operating experience. If we are unable to continue offering innovative solutions or if new or enhanced solutions fail to engage our partners, we may be unable to attract additional partners or retain our current ones, which may adversely affect our business, operating results, and financial condition.
Our ability to develop the required new technologies or offer new and relevant products and service offerings to our Partners
Our future success will depend on our ability to improve the function, performance and reliability of our solutions and services. The development of new and upgraded solutions and new service offerings, including our future road map solutions to support our as part of new business segments or enhance of existing ones, involves a significant amount of time of our research and development team, as it can take our developers months to update, code and test new and upgraded solutions and integrate them into our platform. Further, our design team spends a significant amount of time and resources in order to incorporate various functionality elements as part of engagement with our partners and their business requirements.
We are required to continually gear our solution development efforts towards the needs of different partner segments (Asset class) or per his technology requirement including security related elements.
If we are unable to successfully enhance our existing solutions to meet evolving Partner requirements and increase adoption and usage of our solutions, if we are unable to maintain existing solutions provided by us, or if our efforts to increase the usage of our solutions are more expensive than we expect, if our solutions fail to achieve widespread acceptance, our time to market when onboarding new partners can be significantly impacted, driving operation challenges and impact to our business engagement.
A disruption or failure in services provided by third parties could materially and adversely affect our business.
We increasingly rely on partners and other third parties to provide and/or assist with certain critical aspects of our business, including: (i) customer support, (ii) collections, (iii) loan origination, (iv) data verification and (v) servicing. These partners and third parties may be subject to cybersecurity incidents, privacy breaches, service disruptions and/or financial, legal, regulatory, labor or operational issues; any of which may result in the third party providing inadequate service levels to us or our customers. For example, a significant number of consumers that apply for financial products offered by our partners are sourced through loan aggregators. These loan aggregators may provide offers to consumers from multiple lenders, and the prioritization of these offers seen by the consumer are determined in the sole discretion of the loan aggregator, and offers from our partners may or may not be displayed to consumers, or may be displayed less predominantly than competing lenders. Loan aggregators also typically include the ability to terminate their agreements to provide services to our partners for any reason and at any time upon a 30 days’ notice. If a loan aggregator terminated its relationship with one of our partners, the volume of loans or financial products originated by our partners could be significantly diminished, which may in turn negatively effect our ability to purchase assets from our partners. In addition, such loan aggregators also face litigation and regulatory scrutiny for their part in the consumer lending ecosystem, and as a result, their business models may require fundamental change or may not be sustainable in the future. For example, loan aggregators are
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increasingly required to be licensed as loan brokers or lead generators in many states, subjecting them to increased regulatory supervision and more stringent business requirements. These additional regulatory requirements may impact the ability of loan aggregators to provide their services, or to provide these services on commercially reasonable terms.
In addition, these third parties may breach their agreements with us or our partners and/or refuse to continue or renew these agreements on commercially reasonable terms. If any third party provides inadequate service levels or fails to provide services at all, we may face business disruptions, customer dissatisfaction, reputational damage and/or financial and legal exposure; any of which may harm our business.
Risks Relating to Our Incorporation and Location in Israel.
Furthermore, the Israeli government is currently pursuing extensive changes to Israel’s judicial system. In response to the foregoing developments, certain leading international financial institutions, including investment banks, investors and key economists, have indicated several causes for concern, including that such proposed changes, if adopted, may cause a downgrade to Israel’s sovereign credit rating and Israel's international standing, which would adversely affect the macroeconomic condition in which we operate, and also potentially deter foreign investment into Israel or Israeli companies, which may hinder our ability to raise additional funds, if deemed necessary by our management and board of directors.
We could be adversely affected by the soundness of other financial institutions.
Financial services institutions are interrelated as a result of trading, clearing, counterparty or other relationships. We have exposure to many different industries and counterparties, and routinely execute transactions with counterparties in the financial services industry, including commercial banks, brokers and dealers, investment banks and other institutional clients. Many of these transactions expose us to credit risk in the event of a default by a counterparty or client. In addition, our credit risk may be exacerbated when our collateral cannot be foreclosed upon or is liquidated at prices not sufficient to recover the full amount of the credit or derivative exposure due. Any such losses could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
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THE COMMITTED EQUITY FINANCING
Under the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement, from and after the Commencement Date, we will have the right to sell to B. Riley Principal Capital II up to $300,000,000 of our Class A Ordinary Shares, subject to certain limitations set forth in the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement, from time to time during the term of the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement. Sales of our Class A Ordinary Shares by us to B. Riley Principal Capital II under the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement, and the timing of any such sales, are solely at our option, and we are under no obligation to sell any securities to B. Riley Principal Capital II under the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement. In accordance with our obligations under the Equity Financing Registration Rights Agreement, we have filed the registration statement that includes this prospectus with the SEC to register under the Securities Act the resale by B. Riley Principal Capital II of up to 40,139,607 Class A Ordinary Shares, consisting of (i) 139,607 Commitment Shares that we issued, or may issue if certain conditions are met, in each case, to B. Riley Principal Capital II as consideration for its commitment to purchase our Class A Ordinary Shares at our election under the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement, and (ii) up to 40,000,000 Class A Ordinary Shares that we may elect, in our sole discretion, to issue and sell to B. Riley Principal Capital II under the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement, from time to time from and after the Commencement Date.
We do not have the right to commence any sales of our Class A Ordinary Shares to B. Riley Principal Capital II under the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement until the Commencement Date, which is the date on which all of the conditions to B. Riley Principal Capital II’s purchase obligation set forth in the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement have initially been satisfied, including that the registration statement that includes this prospectus be declared effective by the SEC. From and after the Commencement Date, we will have the right, but not the obligation, from time to time at our sole discretion over the 24-month period beginning on the Commencement Date, to direct B. Riley Principal Capital II to purchase up to a specified maximum amount of Class A Ordinary Shares in one or more Purchases and Intraday Purchases as set forth in the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement, by timely delivering a written Purchase Notice for each Purchase, and timely delivering a written Intraday Purchase Notice for each Intraday Purchase, if any, to B. Riley Principal Capital II in accordance with the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement on any trading day we select as the Purchase Date therefor, so long as (i) the closing sale price of our Class A Ordinary Shares on the trading day immediately prior to such Purchase Date is not less than the Threshold Price and (ii) all of our Class A Ordinary Shares subject to all prior Purchases and all prior Intraday Purchases effected by us under the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement have been received by B. Riley Principal Capital II prior to the time we deliver such notice to B. Riley Principal Capital II.
From and after Commencement, the Company will control the timing and amount of any sales of our Class A Ordinary Shares to B. Riley Principal Capital II. Actual sales of our Class A Ordinary Shares to B. Riley Principal Capital II under the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement will depend on a variety of factors to be determined by us from time to time, including, among other things, market conditions, the trading price of our Class A Ordinary Shares and determinations by us as to the appropriate sources of funding for our company and its operations.
We may not issue or sell any of our Class A Ordinary Shares to B. Riley Principal Capital II under the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement which, when aggregated with all other Class A Ordinary Shares then beneficially owned by B. Riley Principal Capital II and its affiliates (as calculated pursuant to Section 13(d) of the Exchange Act and Rule 13d-3 thereunder), would result in B. Riley Principal Capital II beneficially owning our Class A Ordinary Shares in excess of the Beneficial Ownership Limitation, which is defined in the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement as 4.99% of the outstanding Class A Ordinary Shares.
The net proceeds to us from sales that we elect to make to B. Riley Principal Capital II under the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement, if any, will depend on the frequency and prices at which we sell our Class A Ordinary Shares to B. Riley Principal Capital II. We expect that any proceeds received by us from such sales to B. Riley Principal Capital II will be used for working capital and general corporate purposes.
Neither we nor B. Riley Principal Capital II may assign or transfer our respective rights and obligations under the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement or the Equity Financing Registration Rights Agreement, and no provision of the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement or the Equity Financing Registration Rights Agreement may be modified or waived by us or B. Riley Principal Capital II.
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As consideration for B. Riley Principal Capital II’s commitment to purchase our Class A Ordinary Shares at our direction upon the terms and subject to the conditions set forth in the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement, upon execution of the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement, we issued 46,536 Class A Ordinary Shares to B. Riley Principal Capital II. In addition, (i) upon our receipt of total aggregate gross cash proceeds equal to $100,000,000 from B. Riley Principal Capital II under the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement (if any), we will issue 46,536 additional Class A Ordinary Shares to B. Riley Principal Capital II as Additional Commitment Shares, and (ii) upon our receipt of total aggregate gross cash proceeds equal to $200,000,000 from B. Riley Principal Capital II under the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement (if any), we will issue an additional 46,535 Class A Ordinary Shares to B. Riley Principal Capital II as Additional Commitment Shares, totaling 93,071 Additional Commitment Shares (in addition to the 46,536 Initial Commitment Shares we issued to the Selling Securityholder upon execution of the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement). Furthermore, we have agreed to reimburse B. Riley Principal Capital II for the reasonable legal fees and disbursements of B. Riley Principal Capital II’s legal counsel in an amount not to exceed (i) $100,000 upon our execution of the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement and Equity Financing Registration Rights Agreement and (ii) $7,500 per fiscal quarter, in each case in connection with the transactions contemplated by the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement and the Equity Financing Registration Rights Agreement.
The Equity Financing Purchase Agreement and the Equity Financing Registration Rights Agreement contain customary representations, warranties, conditions and indemnification obligations of the parties. Copies of the agreements have been filed as exhibits to the registration statement that includes this prospectus and are available electronically on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov.
Purchases of our Class A Ordinary Shares Under the Purchase Agreement
Purchases
From and after the Commencement Date, we will have the right, but not the obligation, from time to time at our sole discretion over the 24-month period beginning on the Commencement Date, to direct B. Riley Principal Capital II to purchase a specified number of our Class A Ordinary Shares, not to exceed the applicable Purchase Maximum Amount, in a Purchase under the Purchase Agreement, by timely delivering a written Purchase Notice to B. Riley Principal Capital II, prior to 9:00 a.m., New York City time, on any trading day we select as the Purchase Date for such Purchase, so long as:
the closing sale price of our Class A Ordinary Shares on the trading day immediately prior to such Purchase Date is not less than the Threshold Price; and
all of our Class A Ordinary Shares subject to all prior Purchases and all prior Intraday Purchases effected by us under the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement have been received by B. Riley Principal Capital II prior to the time we deliver such Purchase Notice to B. Riley Principal Capital II.
The Purchase Maximum Amount applicable to such Purchase will be equal to the lesser of:
10,000,000 of our Class A Ordinary Shares; and
20.0% of the total aggregate number (or volume) of our Class A Ordinary Shares traded on Nasdaq during the applicable Purchase Valuation Period for such Purchase.
The actual number of our Class A Ordinary Shares that B. Riley Principal Capital II will be required to purchase in a Purchase, which we refer to as the Purchase Share Amount, will be equal to the number of shares that we specify in the applicable Purchase Notice, subject to adjustment to the extent necessary to give effect to the applicable Purchase Maximum Amount and other applicable limitations set forth in the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement, including the Beneficial Ownership Limitation.
The per share purchase price that B. Riley Principal Capital II will be required to pay for the Purchase Share Amount in a Purchase effected by us pursuant to the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement, if any, will be equal to the VWAP of our Class A Ordinary Shares for the applicable Purchase Valuation Period on the Purchase Date for
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such Purchase, less a fixed 3.0% discount to the VWAP for such Purchase Valuation Period. The Purchase Valuation Period for a Purchase is defined in the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement as the period beginning at the official open (or “commencement”) of the regular trading session on Nasdaq on the applicable Purchase Date for such Purchase, and ending at the earliest to occur of:
3:59 p.m., New York City time, on such Purchase Date or such earlier time publicly announced by the trading market as the official close of the regular trading session on such Purchase Date;
such time that the total aggregate number (or volume) of our Class A Ordinary Shares traded on Nasdaq during such Purchase Valuation Period reaches the applicable Purchase Share Volume Maximum for such Purchase, which will be determined by dividing (a) the applicable Purchase Share Amount for such Purchase, by (b) 0.20; and
to the extent that we elect in the Purchase Notice that the Purchase Valuation Period will also be determined by the applicable Minimum Price Threshold, such time that the trading price of our Class A Ordinary Shares on Nasdaq during such Purchase Valuation Period falls below the applicable Minimum Price Threshold for such Purchase specified by us in the Purchase Notice for such Purchase, or if we do not specify a Minimum Price Threshold in such Purchase Notice, a price equal to 75.0% of the closing sale price of our Class A Ordinary Shares on the trading day immediately prior to the applicable Purchase Date for such Purchase.
In the event that we elect in the Purchase Notice that the Purchase Valuation Period will also be determined by the applicable Minimum Price Threshold, for purposes of calculating the volume of our Class A Ordinary Shares traded during a Purchase Valuation Period, as well as the VWAP for a Purchase Valuation Period, the following transactions, to the extent they occur during such Purchase Valuation Period, are excluded: (x) the opening or first purchase of our Class A Ordinary Shares at or following the official open of the regular trading session on Nasdaq on the applicable Purchase Date for such Purchase and (y) the last or closing sale of our Class A Ordinary Shares at or prior to the official close of the regular trading session on Nasdaq on the applicable Purchase Date for such Purchase.
In the event that we do not elect in the Purchase Notice that the Purchase Valuation Period will also be determined by the applicable Minimum Price Threshold, the calculation of the volume of our Class A Ordinary Shares traded during a Purchase Valuation Period and the VWAP for a Purchase Valuation Period will exclude the following transactions, to the extent they occur during such Purchase Valuation Period: (x) the opening or first purchase of our Class A Ordinary Shares at or following the official open of the regular trading session on Nasdaq on the applicable Purchase Date for such Purchase, (y) the last or closing sale of our Class A Ordinary Shares at or prior to the official close of the regular trading session on Nasdaq on the applicable Purchase Date for such Purchase, and (z) all trades of our Class A Ordinary on Nasdaq during such Purchase Valuation Period at a price below the applicable Minimum Price Threshold for such Purchase. such Purchase Valuation Period: (x) the opening or first purchase of our Class A Ordinary Shares at or following the official open of the regular trading session on Nasdaq on the applicable Purchase Date for such Purchase, (y) the last or closing sale of our Class A Ordinary Shares at or prior to the official close of the regular trading session on Nasdaq on the applicable Purchase Date for such Purchase, and (z) all trades of our Class A Ordinary on Nasdaq during such Purchase Valuation Period at a price below the applicable Minimum Price Threshold for such Purchase.
Intraday Purchases
In addition to the regular Purchases described above, after the Commencement, we will also have the right, but not the obligation, subject to the continued satisfaction of the conditions set forth in the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement, to direct B. Riley Principal Capital II to purchase, on any trading day we select as the Purchase Date therefor (including the same Purchase Date on which an earlier regular Purchase was effected by us (as applicable), although we are not required to effect an earlier regular Purchase on such Purchase Date in order to effect an Intraday Purchase on such Purchase Date), a specified number of our Class A Ordinary Shares, not to exceed the applicable Intraday Purchase Maximum Amount, in an Intraday Purchase under the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement, by timely delivering a written Intraday VWAP Purchase Notice (as such term is defined in the Equity
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Financing Purchase Agreement) to B. Riley Principal Capital II, after 10:00 a.m., New York City time (and after the Purchase Valuation Period for any prior regular Purchase (if any) and the Intraday Purchase Valuation Period for the most recent prior Intraday Purchase effected on the same Purchase Date (if any) have ended), and prior to 3:30 p.m., New York City time, on such Purchase Date, so long as:
the closing sale price of our Class A Ordinary Shares on the trading day immediately prior to such Purchase Date is not less than the Threshold Price; and
all of our Class A Ordinary Shares subject to all prior Purchases and all prior Intraday Purchases effected by us under the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement have been received by B. Riley Principal Capital II prior to the time we deliver such Intraday Purchase Notice to B. Riley Principal Capital II.
The Intraday Purchase Maximum Amount applicable to such Intraday Purchase will be equal to the lesser of:
10,000,000 of our Class A Ordinary Shares; and
20.0% of the total aggregate number (or volume) of our Class A Ordinary Shares traded on Nasdaq during the applicable Intraday Purchase Valuation Period for such Intraday Purchase.
The actual number of our Class A Ordinary Shares that B. Riley Principal Capital II will be required to purchase in an Intraday Purchase, which we refer to as the Intraday Purchase Share Amount, will be equal to the number of shares that we specify in the applicable Intraday Purchase Notice, subject to adjustment to the extent necessary to give effect to the applicable Intraday Purchase Maximum Amount and other applicable limitations set forth in the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement, including the Beneficial Ownership Limitation.
The per share purchase price that B. Riley Principal Capital II will be required to pay for the Intraday Purchase Share Amount in an Intraday Purchase effected by us pursuant to the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement, if any, will be calculated in the same manner as in the case of a regular Purchase, except that the VWAP used to determine the purchase price for the Intraday Purchase Share Amount to be purchased in an Intraday Purchase will be equal to the VWAP for the applicable Intraday Purchase Valuation Period on the Purchase Date for such Intraday Purchase, less a fixed 3.0% discount to the VWAP for such Intraday Purchase Valuation Period. The Intraday Purchase Valuation Period for an Intraday Purchase is defined in the Purchase Agreement as the period during the regular trading session on Nasdaq on such Purchase Date, beginning at the latest to occur of:
such time of confirmation of B. Riley Principal Capital II’s receipt of the applicable Intraday Purchase Notice;
such time that the Purchase Valuation Period for any prior regular Purchase effected on the same Purchase Date (if any) has ended; and
such time that the Intraday Purchase Valuation Period for the most recent prior Intraday Purchase effected on the same Purchase Date (if any) has ended,
and ending at the earliest to occur of:
3:59 p.m., New York City time, on such Purchase Date or such earlier time publicly announced by the trading market as the official close of the regular trading session on such Purchase Date;
such time that the total aggregate number (or volume) of our Class A Ordinary Shares traded on Nasdaq during such Intraday Purchase Valuation Period reaches the applicable Intraday VWAP Purchase Share Volume Maximum (as such term is defined in the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement) for such Intraday Purchase, which will be determined by dividing (a) the applicable Intraday Purchase Share Amount for such Intraday Purchase, by (b) 0.20; and
to the extent that we elect in the Intraday Purchase Notice that the Intraday Purchase Valuation Period will also be determined by the applicable Minimum Price Threshold, such time that the trading price of our Class A Ordinary Share on Nasdaq during such Intraday Purchase Valuation Period falls below the
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applicable Minimum Price Threshold for such Intraday Purchase specified by us in the Intraday Purchase Notice for such Intraday Purchase, or if we do not specify a Minimum Price Threshold in such Intraday Purchase Notice, a price equal to 75.0% of the closing sale price of our Class A Ordinary Shares on the trading day immediately prior to the applicable Purchase Date for such Intraday Purchase.
In the event that we elect in the Intraday Purchase Notice that the Intraday Purchase Valuation Period will also be determined by the applicable Minimum Price Threshold, for purposes of calculating the volume of our Class A Ordinary Shares traded during an Intraday Purchase Valuation Period, as well as the VWAP for an Intraday Purchase Valuation Period, the following transactions, to the extent they occur during such Intraday Purchase Valuation Period, are excluded: (x) the opening or first purchase of our Class A Ordinary Shares at or following the official open of the regular trading session on Nasdaq on the applicable Purchase Date for such Intraday Purchase and (y) the last or closing sale of our Class A Ordinary Shares at or prior to the official close of the regular trading session on Nasdaq on the applicable Purchase Date for such Intraday Purchase.
In the event that we do not elect in the Intraday Purchase Notice that the Intraday Purchase Valuation Period will also be determined by the applicable Minimum Price Threshold, the calculation of the volume of our Class A Ordinary Shares traded during an Intraday Purchase Valuation Period and the VWAP for an Intraday Purchase Valuation Period will exclude the following transactions, to the extent they occur during such Intraday Purchase Valuation Period: (x) the opening or first purchase of our Class A Ordinary Shares at or following the official open of the regular trading session on Nasdaq on the applicable Purchase Date for such Intraday Purchase, (y) the last or closing sale of our Class A Ordinary Shares at or prior to the official close of the regular trading session on Nasdaq on the applicable Purchase Date for such Intraday Purchase, and (z) all trades of our Class A Ordinary on Nasdaq during such Intraday Purchase Valuation Period at a price below the applicable Minimum Price Threshold for such Intraday Purchase.
We may, in our sole discretion, timely deliver multiple Intraday Purchase Notices to B. Riley Principal Capital II prior to 3:30 p.m., New York City time, on a single Purchase Date to effect multiple Intraday Purchases on such same Purchase Date, provided that the Purchase Valuation Period for any earlier regular Purchase effected on the same Purchase Date (as applicable) and the Intraday Purchase Valuation Period for the most recent prior Intraday Purchase effected on the same Purchase Date have ended prior to 3:30 p.m., New York City time, on such Purchase Date, and so long as all of our Class A Ordinary Shares subject to all prior Purchases and all prior Intraday Purchases effected by us under the Purchase Agreement, including those effected earlier on the same Purchase Date (as applicable), have been received by B. Riley Principal Capital II prior to the time we deliver to B. Riley Principal Capital II a new Intraday Purchase Notice to effect an additional Intraday Purchase on the same Purchase Date as an earlier regular Purchase (as applicable) and one or more earlier Intraday Purchases effected on such same Purchase Date.
The terms and limitations that will apply to each subsequent additional Intraday Purchase effected on the same Purchase Date will be the same as those applicable to any earlier regular Purchase (as applicable) and any earlier Intraday Purchase effected on the same Purchase Date as such subsequent additional Intraday Purchase, and the per share purchase price for our Class A Ordinary Shares that we elect to sell to B. Riley Principal Capital II in each subsequent additional Intraday Purchase effected on the same Purchase Date as an earlier regular Purchase (as applicable) and/or earlier Intraday Purchase(s) effected on such Purchase Date will be calculated in the same manner as in the case of such earlier regular Purchase (as applicable) and such earlier Intraday Purchase(s) effected on the same Purchase Date as such subsequent additional Intraday Purchase, with the exception that the Intraday Purchase Valuation Period for each subsequent additional Intraday Purchase will begin and end at different times (and may vary in duration) during the regular trading session on such Purchase Date, in each case as determined in accordance with the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement.
In the case of Purchases and Intraday Purchases effected by us under the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement, if any, all share and dollar amounts used in determining the purchase price per of our Class A Ordinary Share to be purchased by B. Riley Principal Capital II in a Purchase or an Intraday Purchase (as applicable), or in determining the applicable maximum purchase share amounts or applicable volume or price threshold amounts in connection with any such Purchase or Intraday Purchase (as applicable), in each case, will be equitably adjusted for any reorganization, recapitalization, non-cash dividend, share split, reverse share split or other similar transaction
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occurring during any period used to calculate such per share purchase price, maximum purchase share amounts or applicable volume or price threshold amounts.
At or prior to 5:30 p.m., New York City time, on the applicable Purchase Date for a Purchase and/or Intraday Purchase, B. Riley Principal Capital II will provide us with a written confirmation for such Purchase and/or Intraday Purchase, as applicable, setting forth the applicable purchase price (both on a per share basis and the total aggregate purchase price) to be paid by B. Riley Principal Capital II for our Class A Ordinary Shares purchased by B. Riley Principal Capital II in such Purchase and/or Intraday Purchase, as applicable.
The payment for, against delivery of, our Class A Ordinary Shares purchased by B. Riley Principal Capital II in any Purchase or any Intraday Purchase under the Purchase Agreement will be fully settled within two (2) trading days immediately following the applicable Purchase Date for such Purchase or such Intraday Purchase (as applicable), as set forth in the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement.
Conditions Precedent to Commencement and Each Purchase
B. Riley Principal Capital II’s obligation to accept VWAP Purchase Notices and Intraday VWAP Purchase Notices that are timely delivered by us under the Purchase Agreement and to purchase our Class A Ordinary Shares in Purchases and Intraday Purchases under the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement, are subject to (i) the initial satisfaction, at the Commencement, and (ii) the satisfaction, at the applicable “Purchase Commencement Time” and “Intraday VWAP Purchase Commencement Time” (as such terms are defined in the Purchase Agreement) on the applicable Purchase Date for each Purchase and Intraday Purchase after the Commencement Date, of the conditions precedent thereto set forth in the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement, all of which are entirely outside of B. Riley Principal Capital II’s control, which conditions including the following:
the accuracy in all material respects of the representations and warranties of the Company included in the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement;
the Company having performed, satisfied and complied in all material respects with all covenants, agreements and conditions required by the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement to be performed, satisfied or complied with by the Company;
the registration statement that includes this prospectus (and any one or more additional registration statements filed with the SEC that include our Class A Ordinary Shares that may be issued and sold by the Company to B. Riley Principal Capital II under the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement) having been declared effective under the Securities Act by the SEC, and B. Riley Principal Capital II being able to utilize this prospectus (and the prospectus included in any one or more additional registration statements filed with the SEC under the Equity Financing Registration Rights Agreement) to resell all of our Class A Ordinary Shares included in this prospectus (and included in any such additional prospectuses);
the SEC shall not have issued any stop order suspending the effectiveness of the registration statement that includes this prospectus (or any one or more additional registration statements filed with the SEC that include our Class A Ordinary Shares that may be issued and sold by the Company to B. Riley Principal Capital II under the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement) or prohibiting or suspending the use of this prospectus (or the prospectus included in any one or more additional registration statements filed with the SEC under the Equity Financing Registration Rights Agreement), and the absence of any suspension of qualification or exemption from qualification of our Class A Ordinary Shares for offering or sale in any jurisdiction;
FINRA shall not have provided an objection to, and shall have confirmed in writing that it has determined not to raise any objections with respect to the fairness and reasonableness of, the terms and arrangements of the transactions contemplated by the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement and the Equity Financing Registration Rights Agreement;
there shall not have occurred any event and there shall not exist any condition or state of facts, which makes any statement of a material fact made in the registration statement that includes this prospectus (or in
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any one or more additional registration statements filed with the SEC that include our Class A Ordinary Shares that may be issued and sold by the Company to B. Riley Principal Capital II under the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement) untrue or which requires the making of any additions to or changes to the statements contained therein in order to state a material fact required by the Securities Act to be stated therein or necessary in order to make the statements then made therein (in the case of this prospectus or the prospectus included in any one or more additional registration statements filed with the SEC under the Equity Financing Registration Rights Agreement, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made) not misleading;
this prospectus, in final form, shall have been filed with the SEC under the Securities Act prior to Commencement, and all reports, schedules, registrations, forms, statements, information and other documents required to have been filed by the Company with the SEC pursuant to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act shall have been filed with the SEC;
trading in our Class A Ordinary Shares shall not have been suspended by the SEC or Nasdaq, the Company shall not have received any final and non-appealable notice that the listing or quotation of our Class A Ordinary Shares on Nasdaq shall be terminated on a date certain (unless, prior to such date, our Class A Ordinary Shares are listed or quoted on any other Eligible Market, as such term is defined in the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement), and there shall be no suspension of, or restriction on, accepting additional deposits of our Class A Ordinary Shares, electronic trading or book-entry services by the Depository Trust Company with respect to our Class A Ordinary Shares;
the Company shall have complied with all applicable federal, state and local governmental laws, rules, regulations and ordinances in connection with the execution, delivery and performance of theEquity Financing Purchase Agreement and the Equity Financing Registration Rights Agreement;
the absence of any statute, regulation, order, decree, writ, ruling or injunction by any court or governmental authority of competent jurisdiction which prohibits the consummation of or that would materially modify or delay any of the transactions contemplated by the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement or the Equity Financing Registration Rights Agreement;
the absence of any action, suit or proceeding before any arbitrator or any court or governmental authority seeking to restrain, prevent or change the transactions contemplated by the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement or the Equity Financing Registration Rights Agreement, or seeking material damages in connection with such transactions;
all of our Class A Ordinary Shares that may be issued pursuant to the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement shall have been approved for listing or quotation on Nasdaq (or if our Class A Ordinary Shares is not then listed on Nasdaq, then on any Eligible Market), subject only to notice of issuance;
no condition, occurrence, state of facts or event constituting a Material Adverse Effect (as such term is defined in the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement) shall have occurred and be continuing;
the absence of any bankruptcy proceeding against the Company commenced by a third party, and the Company shall not have commenced a voluntary bankruptcy proceeding, consented to the entry of an order for relief against it in an involuntary bankruptcy case, consented to the appointment of a custodian of the Company or for all or substantially all of its property in any bankruptcy proceeding, or made a general assignment for the benefit of its creditors; and
the receipt by B. Riley Principal Capital II of the legal opinions and negative assurances, bring-down legal opinions and negative assurances, and audit comfort letters as required under the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement.
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Termination of the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement
Unless earlier terminated as provided in the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement, the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement will terminate automatically on the earliest to occur of:
the first day of the month following the 24-month anniversary of the Commencement Date;
the date on which B. Riley Principal Capital II shall have purchased our Class A Ordinary Shares under the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement for an aggregate gross purchase price equal to $300,000,000;
the date on which our Class A Ordinary Shares shall have failed to be listed or quoted on Nasdaq or any other Eligible Market;
the 30th trading day after the date on which a voluntary or involuntary bankruptcy proceeding involving our company has been commenced that is not discharged or dismissed prior to such trading day; and
the date on which a bankruptcy custodian is appointed for all or substantially all of our property, or we make a general assignment for the benefit of our creditors.
We have the right to terminate the Purchase Agreement at any time after Commencement, at no cost or penalty, upon two trading days’ prior written notice to B. Riley Principal Capital II. We and B. Riley Principal Capital II may also terminate the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement at any time by mutual written consent.
B. Riley Principal Capital II also has the right to terminate the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement upon five trading days’ prior written notice to us, but only upon the occurrence of certain events, including:
the occurrence and continuation of a Material Adverse Effect (as such term is defined in the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement);
the occurrence of a Fundamental Transaction (as such term defined in the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement) involving our company;
if any registration statement is not filed by the applicable Filing Deadline (as defined in the Equity Financing Registration Rights Agreement) or declared effective by the SEC by the applicable Effectiveness Deadline (as defined in the Equity Financing Registration Rights Agreement), or the Company is otherwise in breach or default in any material respect under any of the other provisions of the Equity Financing Registration Rights Agreement, and, if such failure, breach or default is capable of being cured, such failure, breach or default is not cured within 10 trading days after notice of such failure, breach or default is delivered to us;
if we are in breach or default in any material respect of any of our covenants and agreements in the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement or in the Equity Financing Registration Rights Agreement, and, if such breach or default is capable of being cured, such breach or default is not cured within 10 trading days after notice of such breach or default is delivered to us;
the effectiveness of the registration statement that includes this prospectus or any additional registration statement we file with the SEC pursuant to the Equity Financing Registration Rights Agreement lapses for any reason (including the issuance of a stop order by the SEC), or this prospectus or the prospectus included in any additional registration statement we file with the SEC pursuant to the Equity Financing Registration Rights Agreement otherwise becomes unavailable to B. Riley Principal Capital II for the resale of all of our Class A Ordinary Shares included therein, and such lapse or unavailability continues for a period of 20 consecutive trading days or for more than an aggregate of 60 trading days in any 365-day period, other than due to acts of B. Riley Principal Capital II; or
trading in our Class A Ordinary Shares on Nasdaq (or if our Class A Ordinary Shares are then listed on an Eligible Market, trading in our Class A Ordinary Shares on such Eligible Market) has been suspended for a period of three consecutive trading days.
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No termination of the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement by us or by B. Riley Principal Capital II will become effective prior to the fifth trading day immediately following the date on which any pending Purchase and any pending Intraday Purchase has been fully settled in accordance with the terms and conditions of the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement, and no termination will affect any of our respective rights and obligations under the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement with respect to any pending Purchase, any pending Intraday Purchase, the Initial Commitment Shares, the Additional Commitment Shares, and any fees and disbursements of B. Riley Principal Capital II’s legal counsel in connection with the transactions contemplated by the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement and the Equity Financing Registration Rights Agreement. Both we and B. Riley Principal Capital II have agreed to complete our respective obligations with respect to any such pending Purchase and any pending Intraday Purchase under the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement. Furthermore, no termination of the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement will affect the Equity Financing Registration Rights Agreement, which will survive any termination of the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement.
No Short-Selling or Hedging by B. Riley Principal Capital II
B. Riley Principal Capital II has agreed not to engage in or effect, directly or indirectly, for its own principal account or for the principal account of its sole member, any of its or its sole member’s respective officers, or any entity managed or controlled by it or its sole member, any (i) “short sale” (as such term is defined in Rule 200 of Regulation SHO of the Exchange Act) of our Class A Ordinary Shares or (ii) hedging transaction, which establishes a net short position with respect to our Class A Ordinary Shares, during the term of the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement.
Prohibition on Variable Rate Transactions
Subject to specified exceptions included in the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement, we are limited in our ability to enter into specified “Variable Rate Transactions” (as such term is defined in the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement) during the term of the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement. Such transactions include, among others, the issuance of convertible securities with a conversion or exercise price that is based upon or varies with the trading price of our Class A Ordinary Shares after the date of issuance, or our effecting or entering into an agreement to effect an “equity line of credit” or other substantially similar continuous offering with a third party, in which we may offer, issue or sell our Class A Ordinary Shares or any securities exercisable, exchangeable or convertible into our Class A Ordinary Shares at a future determined price. See “Plan of Distribution (Conflict of Interest)” for more information regarding Variable Rate Transactions.
Effect of Sales of our Class A Ordinary Shares under the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement on our Shareholders
All of our Class A Ordinary Shares that may be issued or sold by us to B. Riley Principal Capital II under the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement that are being registered under the Securities Act for resale by B. Riley Principal Capital II in this offering are expected to be freely tradable. Our Class A Ordinary Shares being registered for resale in this offering may be issued and sold by us to B. Riley Principal Capital II from time to time at our discretion over a period of up to 24 months commencing on the Commencement Date. The resale by B. Riley Principal Capital II of a significant amount of shares registered for resale in this offering at any given time, or the perception that these sales may occur, could cause the market price of our Class A Ordinary Shares to decline and to be highly volatile. Sales of our Class A Ordinary Shares, if any, to B. Riley Principal Capital II under the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement will depend upon market conditions and other factors to be determined by us. We may ultimately decide to sell to B. Riley Principal Capital II all, some or none of our Class A Ordinary Shares that may be available for us to sell to B. Riley Principal Capital II pursuant to the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement.
If and when we do elect to sell our Class A Ordinary Shares to B. Riley Principal Capital II pursuant to the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement, after B. Riley Principal Capital II has acquired such shares, B. Riley Principal Capital II may resell all, some or none of such shares at any time or from time to time in its discretion and at different prices. As a result, investors who purchase shares from B. Riley Principal Capital II in this offering at different times will likely pay different prices for those shares, and so may experience different levels of dilution, in some cases substantial dilution, and different outcomes in their investment results. Investors may experience a
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decline in the value of the shares they purchase from B. Riley Principal Capital II in this offering as a result of future sales made by us to B. Riley Principal Capital II at prices lower than the prices such investors paid for their shares in this offering. In addition, if we sell a substantial number of shares to B. Riley Principal Capital II under the Purchase Agreement, or if investors expect that we will do so, the actual sales of shares or the mere existence of our arrangement with B. Riley Principal Capital II may make it more difficult for us to sell equity or equity-related securities in the future at a time and at a price that we might otherwise wish to effect such sales.
Because the purchase price per share to be paid by B. Riley Principal Capital II for our Class A Ordinary Shares that we may elect to sell to B. Riley Principal Capital II under the Purchase Agreement, if any, will fluctuate based on the market prices of our Class A Ordinary Shares during the applicable Purchase Valuation Period for each Purchase, and during the applicable Intraday Purchase Valuation Period for each Intraday Purchase, made pursuant to the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement, if any, as of the date of this prospectus it is not possible for us to predict the number of our Class A Ordinary Shares that we will sell to B. Riley Principal Capital II under the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement, the actual purchase price per share to be paid by B. Riley Principal Capital II for those shares, or the actual gross proceeds to be raised by us from those sales, if any. As of March 31, 2023, there were 529,168,740 Class A Ordinary Shares outstanding, of which 288,630,215 shares were held by non-affiliates. Although the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement provides that we may sell up to an aggregate of $300,000,000 of our Class A Ordinary Shares to B. Riley Principal Capital II, 40,139,607 Class A Ordinary Shares are being registered for resale under the registration statement that includes this prospectus. If all of the 40,139,607 shares offered for resale by B. Riley Principal Capital II under this prospectus were issued and outstanding as of March 31, 2023, such shares would represent approximately 7% of the total number of Class A Ordinary Shares outstanding and approximately 12% of the total number of outstanding shares held by non-affiliates, in each case as of March 31, 2023.
The number of Class A Ordinary Shares ultimately offered for sale by B. Riley Principal Capital II is dependent upon the number of our Class A Ordinary Shares, if any, we ultimately sell to B. Riley Principal Capital II under the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement.
The issuance of our Class A Ordinary Shares to B. Riley Principal Capital II pursuant to the Equity Financing Purchase Agreement will not affect the rights or privileges of our existing shareholders, except that the economic and voting interests of each of our existing shareholders will be diluted. Although the number of our Class A Ordinary Shares that our existing shareholders own will not decrease, our Class A Ordinary Shares owned by our existing shareholders will represent a smaller percentage of our total outstanding Class A Ordinary Shares after any such issuance.
The following table sets forth the amount of gross proceeds we would receive from B. Riley Principal Capital II from our sale of our Class A Ordinary Shares to B. Riley Principal Capital II under the Purchase Agreement at varying purchase prices:
Assumed Average Purchase Price Per Share
Number of Registered Shares to be Issued if Full Purchase(1)
Percentage of Outstanding Class A Ordinary Shares After Giving Effect to the Issuance to B. Riley Principal Capital II(2)
Gross Proceeds from the Sale of Shares to B. Riley Principal Capital II Under the Purchase Agreement
$0.867(3)
40,000,0007.03%$34,680,000
$1.0040,000,0007.03%$40,000,000
$2.0040,000,0007.03%$80,000,000
$3.0040,000,0007.03%$120,000,000
$4.0040,000,0007.03%$160,000,000
$5.0040,000,0007.03%$200,000,000
$6.0040,000,0007.03%$240,000,000
$7.0040,000,0007.03%$280,000,000
$8.0037,500,0006.62%$300,000,000
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__________________
(1)Excluding the 139,607 Commitment Shares that we issued, and may issue, if certain conditions are met, to B. Riley Principal Capital II. Although the Purchase Agreement provides that we may sell up to $300,000,000 of our Class A Ordinary Shares to B. Riley Principal Capital II, we are registering 40,139,607 shares under the registration statement that includes this prospectus. We will not issue more than an aggregate of 40,139,607 Class A Ordinary Shares. The number of shares to be issued as set forth in this column is without regard for the Beneficial Ownership Limitation.
(2)The denominator is based on 529,168,740 Class A Ordinary Shares outstanding as of March 31, 2023 (which, for these purposes, includes the 46,536 Initial Commitment Shares we issued to B. Riley Principal Capital II on August 17, 2022), adjusted to include the issuance of the number of shares set forth in the adjacent column that we would have sold to B. Riley Principal Capital II, assuming the average purchase price in the first column. The numerator is based on the number of shares issuable under the Purchase Agreement (that are the subject of this offering) at the corresponding assumed average purchase price set forth in the first column.
(3)The closing sale price of our Class A Ordinary Shares on Nasdaq on April 28, 2023.
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USE OF PROCEEDS
All of the Class A Ordinary Shares offered by the Selling Securityholder pursuant to this prospectus will be sold by the Selling Securityholder for its accounts. We will not receive any of the proceeds from these sales.
We may receive up to $300 million aggregate gross proceeds under the Purchase Agreement from any sales we make to the Selling Securityholder pursuant to the Purchase Agreement. The net proceeds from sales, if any, under the Purchase Agreement, will depend on the frequency and prices at which we sell our Class A Ordinary Shares to the Selling Securityholder after the date of this prospectus. See the section titled “Plan of Distribution (Conflict of Interest)” elsewhere in this prospectus for more information.
We expect to use any proceeds that we receive under the Purchase Agreement for working capital and general corporate purposes. As of the date of this prospectus, we cannot specify with certainty all of the particular uses, and the respective amounts we may allocate to those uses, for any net proceeds we receive. Accordingly, we will retain broad discretion over the use of these proceeds.
We have engaged Northland, a registered broker-dealer and FINRA member, to be the qualified independent underwriter in this offering and, in such capacity, participate in the preparation of the registration statement that includes this prospectus and exercise the usual standards of “due diligence” with respect thereto. The Selling Securityholder has agreed to pay Northland a cash fee of $50,000 upon the completion of this offering as consideration for its services and to reimburse Northland up to $5,000 for expenses incurred in connection with acting as the qualified independent underwriter in this offering.
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DIVIDEND POLICY
Pagaya currently expects to retain all future earnings for use in the operation and expansion of its business and does not plan to pay any dividends on Pagaya Ordinary Shares in the near future. The declaration, payment and amount of any future dividends will be made at the discretion of the Pagaya Board and will depend upon, among other things, the results of operations, cash flows and financial condition, operating and capital requirements, and other factors as the Pagaya Board considers relevant. There is no assurance that future dividends will be paid, and if dividends are paid, there is no assurance with respect to the amount of any such dividend.
The distribution of dividends may also be limited by the Companies Law, which permits the distribution of dividends only out of retained earnings or earnings derived over the two most recent years, whichever is greater, based on audited or reviewed financial statements for a period of up to two years ended no more than six months prior to the date of distribution, provided that there is no reasonable concern that payment of a dividend will prevent a company from satisfying its existing and foreseeable obligations as they become due. Under the Pagaya Articles, dividend distributions may be determined by the Pagaya Board, without the need for shareholder approval. Payment of dividends may be subject to Israeli withholding taxes. See “Description of Securities and Certain Material Israeli Tax Considerations—Taxation of our shareholders for additional information.
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MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with the section titled “Key Components of Statements of Operations” of this prospectus and our consolidated financial statements and the related notes contained elsewhere in this prospectus. This discussion and analysis may contain forward-looking statements based upon current expectations that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results may differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of various factors, including those set forth in “Risk Factors” of this prospectus.In this section “we,” “us,” “our,” “Pagaya” and “the Company” refer to Pagaya Technologies Ltd.
Pursuant to the FAST Act Modernization and Simplification of Regulation S-K, discussions related to the results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2021 in comparison to the year ended December 31, 2020 have been omitted. For such omitted discussions, refer to Pagaya’s Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations included in the Registration Statement on Form F-4 (File No. 333-264168), as amended, initially filed with the SEC on April 7, 2022.
Company Overview
Pagaya makes life-changing financial products and services available to more people.
We have built, and we are continuing to scale, a leading AI and data network for the benefit of financial services and other service providers, their customers, and investors. Services providers integrated in our network, which we refer to as our ‘‘Partners,’’ range from high-growth financial technology companies to incumbent banks and financial institutions. Partners benefit from our network to extend financial products to their customers, in turn helping those customers fulfill their financial needs. These assets originated by Partners with the assistance of Pagaya’s AI technology are eligible to be acquired by Financing Vehicles.
In recent years, investments in digitization have improved the front-end delivery of financial products, upgrading customer experience and convenience. Notwithstanding these advances, we believe underlying approaches to the determination of creditworthiness for financial products are often outdated and overly manual. In our experience, providers of financial services tend to utilize a limited number of factors to make decisions, operate with siloed technology infrastructure and have data limited to their own experience. As a result, we believe financial services providers approve a smaller proportion of their application volume than is possible with the benefit of modern technology, such as our AI technology and data network.
At our core, we are a technology company that deploys sophisticated data science, machine learning and AI technology to drive better results across the financial ecosystem. We believe our solution drives a “win-win-win” for Partners, their customers and potential customers, and investors. First, by utilizing our network, Partners receive direct benefits from our network by approving a greater share of customer applications, which we believe drives superior revenue growth, enhanced brand affinity, opportunities to promote other financial products and decreased unit-level customer acquisition costs. Partners realize these benefits with limited incremental risk or funding requirements. Second, Partners’ customers benefit from enhanced and more convenient access to financial products. Third, investors benefit through gaining exposure to these assets originated by Partners with the assistance of our AI technology and acquired by the Financing Vehicles through our network.
Recent Developments
Acquisition of Darwin Homes, Inc.
On January 5, 2023, we consummated a business combination pursuant to the Darwin Merger Agreement, dated as of November 15, 2022, by and among Pagaya, Darwin, Darwin Merger Sub, and Shareholder Representative Services LLC, a Colorado limited liability company, acting solely in its capacity as the representative, agent and
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attorney-in-fact of the stockholders of Darwin. On the Darwin Closing Date, the following transactions occurred pursuant to the terms and conditions of the Darwin Merger Agreement:
at the Darwin Effective Time, Darwin Merger Sub merged with and into Darwin, with Darwin continuing as the Darwin Surviving Company after the Darwin Merger, and, as a result of the Darwin Merger, the Darwin Surviving Company became a direct, wholly owned subsidiary of Pagaya; and
at the Darwin Effective Time, Darwin Shares issued and outstanding prior to the Darwin Effective Time (other than any Darwin Shares that were (i) subject to options or warrants, (ii) held in Darwin’s treasury or owned by Pagaya, Darwin Merger Sub or Darwin immediately prior to the Darwin Effective Time or (iii) held by the Darwin Equityholders who perfected and did not withdraw a demand for appraisal rights pursuant to the applicable provisions of Delaware General Corporation Law), were cancelled and automatically converted into the right to receive Pagaya’s Class A Ordinary Shares, such that, following the Darwin Effective Time, Pagaya issued approximately 18.2 million Class A Ordinary Shares and may issue an additional approximately 180,000 Class A Ordinary Shares to the Darwin Equityholders.
Reduction in Workforce
On January 18, 2023, we announced a reduction in workforce of approximately 20% of employees across our Israel and U.S. offices, as compared to our headcount as of December 31, 2022. This reduction in workforce is expected to enable us to streamline our operations in the current market environment to achieve our near-to-medium term growth priorities. The affected employees were notified on or before January 17, 2023, and all actions associated with the reduction were expected to be substantially complete in the first quarter of 2023, subject to local law.
We expect that this reduction in workforce will result in approximately $30 million of annualized cost savings. We also expect to incur a severance-related charge of approximately $4 million, consisting primarily of one-time separation payments, the majority of which will be made in the first quarter of 2023. The charges and timing of such charges described above are preliminary estimates based on our current expectations and are subject to a number of assumptions and risks, and actual results may differ materially from such estimates. We may also incur other charges, costs or cash expenditures not currently contemplated due to events that may occur as a result of, or associated with, the reduction in workforce. See “Risk Factors—Our recent reduction in workforce, announced on January 18, 2023, may not result in anticipated savings or operational efficiencies, could result in total costs and expenses that are greater than expected, and could disrupt our business.
Amended Letter Agreement
Pursuant to the Letter Agreement, dated June 1, 2020, the Company agreed to provide Radiance Star Pte. Ltd. (“Radiance”), an affiliate of GIC Private Limited, the right to purchase up to a certain amount of qualified securities in certain offerings by the Company and to provide Radiance with notice of any fund offerings or securitization offerings. On March 19, 2023, the Company and Radiance agreed to extend the term of the Letter Agreement by three years (the “Amended Letter Agreement”) to June 1, 2028 on the same terms and amount, including the issuance of 2,640,000 warrants to purchase Class A Ordinary shares at an exercise price of $0.01 that vest annually if certain investment thresholds by Radiance are met. There were no other material changes to the existing terms of the Letter Agreement.
Series A Preferred Share Purchase Agreement
On April 14, 2023 the Company entered into a Preferred Share Purchase Agreement (the “Purchase Agreement”) with Oak HC/FT Partners V, L.P., Oak HC/FT Partners V-A, L.P. and Oak HC/FT Partners V-B, L.P (together, the “Investor”) pursuant to which the Company agreed, subject to Shareholder Approval (as defined below), to issue and sell to the Investor an aggregate of 60,000,000 Series A Preferred Shares, no par value (the “Series A Preferred Shares”), at a price of $1.25 per share (subject to applicable adjustment as provided in the A&R Articles), for an aggregate purchase price of $75 million (the “Transaction”). Subject to shareholder approval of certain Amended and Restated Articles of Association of the Company (the “A&R Articles”), the Series A Preferred Shares will have the rights and preferences set forth in the A&R Articles. Pursuant to the A&R Articles, there are
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80,000,000 authorized Series A Preferred Shares and the Company may issue and sell the balance of the authorized but unissued Series A Preferred Shares from time to time in the future.
The Investor is affiliated with Oak HC/FT Partners II, L.P. (“Oak”), an entity that holds approximately 12% of the Class A Ordinary Shares, no par value, of the Company, and approximately 3% of the voting power of the Company as of the date of the Purchase Agreement. Mr. Dan Petrozzo, a member of the Pagaya Board and the Audit Committee of the Pagaya Board, is a partner at Oak. Following their review of applicable considerations pursuant to the Company’s policies and applicable Israeli law, the disinterested members of the Audit Committee and of the Pagaya Board approved the Purchase Agreement and the exhibits, schedules and ancillary documents thereto, and the Pagaya Board recommended to the shareholders of the Company to adopt the A&R Articles and approve the Transaction and the matters contemplated thereby.
Pursuant to the Purchase Agreement, the Company agreed to use commercially reasonable efforts to hold a meeting of shareholders (the “Shareholder Meeting”) as promptly as reasonably practicable to obtain shareholder approval (the “Shareholder Approval”) of (i) the adoption of the A&R Articles as required by applicable Israeli law and (ii) the Transaction and the matters contemplated thereby. The closing of the Transaction is subject to, among other things, the Company obtaining the Shareholder Approval.
In connection with the execution of the Purchase Agreement, certain shareholders of the Company entered into a voting agreement (the “Voting Agreement”) with the Company, pursuant to which such shareholders agreed to vote at a meeting of the shareholders (i) in favor of (a) the adoption of the A&R Articles and (b) any other matter reasonably necessary to the consummation of the Transaction and considered and voted upon by the shareholders of the Company, and (ii) against any action, proposal, transaction or agreement that could reasonably be expected to impede, interfere with, delay, discourage, adversely affect or inhibit the timely consummation of the Transaction.
The foregoing does not purport to be a complete description of the rights and obligations of the parties to the Purchase Agreement and is qualified in its entirety by reference to the Purchase Agreement, a copy of which is attached as Exhibit 4.7 to this filing. The foregoing description of the terms pertaining to the Series A Preferred Shares is not complete and is qualified in its entirety by reference to the A&R Articles, a copy of which is attached as an exhibit to the Purchase Agreement. The foregoing description of the Voting Agreement is not complete and is qualified in its entirety by reference to the Voting Agreement, a copy of which is attached as Exhibit 4.8 to this filing. See “Summary of the Prospectus—Business Summary.
Emerging Growth Company Status
We qualify as an “emerging growth company,” as defined in Section 2(a) of the Securities Act, as modified by the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 (the “JOBS Act”). As such, we are eligible to take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not “emerging growth companies,” including, but not limited to, not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (the “ Sarbanes-Oxley Act”), reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements, and exemptions from the requirements of holding a non-binding advisory vote on executive compensation and shareholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. If some investors find our securities less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our securities and the prices of our securities may be more volatile.
Further, Section 102(b)(1) of the JOBS Act exempts emerging growth companies from being required to comply with new or revised financial accounting standards until private companies (that is, those that have not had a Securities Act registration statement declared effective or do not have a class of securities registered under the Exchange Act) are required to comply with the new or revised financial accounting standards. The JOBS Act provides that a company can elect to opt out of the extended transition period and comply with the requirements that apply to non-emerging growth companies but any such election to opt out is irrevocable. We have elected not to opt out of such extended transition period, which means that when a standard is issued or revised and it has different application dates for public or private companies, we, as an emerging growth company, can adopt the new or revised standard at the time private companies adopt the new or revised standard. This may make comparison of our financial statements with certain other public companies difficult or impossible because of the potential differences in accounting standards used.
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We will remain an emerging growth company until the earlier of: (i) the last day of the fiscal year (a) following the fifth anniversary of June 22, 2022, (b) in which we have an annual total gross revenue of at least $1.235 billion, or (c) in which we are deemed to be a large accelerated filer, which means the market value of our ordinary equity that is held by non-affiliates exceeds $700 million as of the last business day of the second fiscal quarter of such fiscal year; and (ii) the date on which we have issued more than $1 billion in non-convertible debt securities during the prior three-year period. References herein to “emerging growth company” have the meaning associated with it in the JOBS Act.
Foreign Private Issuer Exemptions
We report as a “foreign private issuer” under U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission rules. Consequently, we are subject to the reporting requirements under the Exchange Act applicable to foreign private issuers. As a result, we are not required to file our annual report on Form 20-F until 120 days after the end of each fiscal year and we will furnish reports on Form 6-K to the SEC regarding certain information required to be publicly disclosed by us in Israel or that is distributed or required to be distributed by us to our shareholders. Based on our foreign private issuer status, we will not be required to (i) file periodic reports and financial statements with the SEC as frequently or as promptly as a U.S. company whose securities are registered under the Exchange Act, (ii) comply with Regulation FD, which addresses certain restrictions on the selective disclosure of material information or (iii) comply with SEC rules relating to proxy solicitation in connection with shareholder meetings and presentation of shareholder proposals. In addition, among other matters, based on our foreign private issuer status, our officers, directors and principal shareholders will be exempt from the reporting and “short-swing” profit recovery provisions of Section 16 of the Exchange Act and the rules under the Exchange Act with respect to their purchases and sales of Pagaya Ordinary Shares.
Our Economic Model
Pagaya’s revenues are primarily derived from the gross dollar amount of assets that are originated by Partners with the assistance of Pagaya’s AI technology and are acquired by Financing Vehicles (“Network Volume”). Network Volume represents the assets that our Partners originate with the assistance of our AI technology and are acquired by Financing Vehicles through our network. We source capital from investors who invest in Financing Vehicles. We generate revenue from network AI fees, contract fees, interest income and investment income. Revenue from fees is comprised of network AI fees and contract fees. Network AI fees can be further broken down into two fee streams: AI integration fees and capital markets execution fees.
We earn AI integration fees from our Partners in our Financing Vehicles for the creation, sourcing and delivery of the assets that comprise our Network Volume.
Capital markets execution and contract fees are earned from investors in our Financing Vehicles. Multiple funding channels are utilized to enable the purchase of network assets from our Partners, such as asset backed securitizations (“ABS”). Capital markets execution fees are earned from the market pricing of ABS transactions while contract fees are management, performance and other fees earned for administering these vehicles.
Additionally, we earn interest income from our risk retention holdings and our corporate cash balances and investment income associated with our ownership interests in certain Financing Vehicles and other proprietary investments.
We incur costs when Network Volume is acquired by the Financing Vehicles. These costs, which we refer to as “Production Costs,” compensate our Partners for acquiring and originating assets. Accordingly, the amount and growth of our Production Costs are highly correlated to Network Volume.
Additionally, we have built what we believe to be a leading data science and AI organization that has enabled us to assist our Partners as they make decisions to extend credit to consumers or for the identification and purchase of single-family residential properties. Headcount, technology overhead and research and development expenses represent the significant portion of our expenses outside of Production Costs.
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Key Factors Affecting Our Performance
Expanded Usage of Our Network by Our Existing Partners
Our AI technology enables certain Partners to convert a larger proportion of their application volume into originated loans, enabling them to expand their ecosystem and generate incremental revenues. Our Partners have historically seen rapid scaling of origination volume on our network shortly after onboarding and the contribution of Pagaya’s network to Partners’ total origination volume tends to increase over time. On average, Partners have seen approximately 3 times growth in originations that are enabled by our network between the 3rd and 12th month of onboarding. We are proud of the fact that we have retained 100% of Partners since our inception in 2016, a demonstration of the strength of our value proposition.
Adoption of Our Network by Partners
We devote significant time to, and have a team that focuses on, recruiting new Partners to our network. We believe that our success in adding new Partners to our network is driven by our distinctive value proposition: driving significant revenue uplift to our Partners at limited incremental cost or credit risk to the Partner. Our success adding new Partners has contributed to our overall Network Volume growth and driven our ability to rapidly scale new asset classes. In 2022, we onboarded 6 new Partners, including Klarna and Ally Financial. Approximately $650 million of Network Volume was generated by new Partners and channels on our network in the full-year 2022.
Continued Improvements to Our AI Technology
We believe our historical growth has been significantly influenced by improvements to our AI technology, which are in turn driven both by the deepening of our proprietary data network and the strengthening of our AI technology. As our existing Partners grow their usage of our network, new Partners join our network, and as we expand our network into new asset classes, the value of our data asset increases. Our technology improvements thus benefit from a flywheel effect that is characteristic of AI technology, in that improvements are derived from a continually increasing base of training data for our technology. We have found, and we expect to continue to experience, that more data leads to more efficient pricing and greater Network Volume. Since inception, approximately $1.1 trillion in application volume has been evaluated by our network.
In addition to the accumulation of data, we make improvements to our technology by leveraging the experience of our research and development specialists. Our research team is central to accelerating the sophistication of our AI technology and expanding into new markets and use cases. We are reliant on these experts’ success in making these improvements to our technology over time.
Availability of Funding from Investors
The availability of funding from investors is critical to our growth, as Financing Vehicles only acquire an asset if funding is available for that specific asset. We continue to seek to diversify funding channels and counterparties as our business grows. Since the beginning of 2019, we have raised approximately $15 billion from investors, but the availability of funding is not guaranteed and subject to market conditions. See “Risk Factors—Our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected as a result of an unexpected failure of a vendor,bank or other third party service provider that presents concentration risks to us or our Partners. Our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected as a result of an unexpected failure of a vendor,bank or other third party service provider that presents concentration risks to us or our Partners” section in this prospectus.
Performance of Assets Originated with the Assistance of Our AI Technology
The availability of funding from investors is a function of demand for consumer credit and residential real estate assets, as well as the performance of such assets originated with the assistance of our AI technology and purchased by Financing Vehicles. Our AI technology and data-driven insights are designed to enable relative outperformance of assets originated by our Partners versus the broader market. We believe that investors in Financing Vehicles view our AI technology as an important component in delivering assets that meet their investment criteria. To the extent
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that assets acquired by the Financing Vehicles underperform investors’ expectations, the availability of funding may be adversely affected. See “Risk Factors—Risks Related to the Operations of Our Business” section in this prospectus.
Impact of Macroeconomic Cycles
We expect economic cycles to affect our financial performance and related metrics. Macroeconomic conditions, including, but not limited to rising interest rates, inflation, supply chain disruptions, labor shortages, and the Russian invasion of Ukraine, may impact consumer demand for financial products, our Partners’ ability to generate and convert customer application volume, as well as the availability of funding from our investors through the Financing Vehicles. The recent rise in inflation may increase financing costs and adversely impact the ability of borrowers to service their debt, which could lead to deterioration of the credit performance of loans and impact investor returns, and therefore may result in lower demand from investors for assets generated on our platform and lead to constraints on our ability to fund new Network Volume. In addition, rising inflation may create an escalation in our operating costs, including employee compensation, financing costs, and general corporate expenses, which could reduce our cash flow and operating income. As of the date of this prospectus, we have not experienced material impacts to our business performance from inflationary pressure. Higher interest rates often lead to higher payment obligations, which may reduce the ability of borrowers to remain current on their obligations and therefore, lead to increased delinquencies, defaults, customer bankruptcies, charge-offs, and decreasing recoveries. Any impact to investor returns may lead to an adverse impact on our earnings. The increased risk-free rate of return may impact investor demand for risk assets such as consumer credit, which may constrain our ability to raise new funding for Network Volume. While our ability to raise new funding has not been materially impacted, the cost of capital has increased due to the higher interest rate environment. We are closely monitoring the invasion of Ukraine by Russia in February 2022 and its global impacts. While the conflict is still unfolding and the outcome remains highly uncertain, we do not believe the Russia-Ukraine conflict will have a material impact on our business and results of operation. However, if the Russia-Ukraine conflict continues or worsens, leading to greater global economic disruptions and uncertainty, our business and results of operations could be materially impacted. A prolonged economic downturn may also adversely affect the performance of assets that Financing Vehicles acquire from our network. At the same time, such events, including the COVID-19 pandemic or the 2022 inflationary environment, provide key data that we can utilize to improve our AI technology, and they may also help to validate the outcomes our network drives for both Partners and investors. For a further discussion of uncertainties and other factors that could impact our operating results, see “Risk Factors” section in this prospectus.
Key Operating Metrics
We collect and analyze operating and financial data of our business to assess our performance, formulate financial projections and make strategic decisions. In addition to total revenues, net, operating income (loss), other measures under U.S. GAAP, and certain non-GAAP financial measures (see discussion and reconciliation herein titled “Reconciliation of Non-GAAP Financial Measures.”) The following table sets forth a key operating metric we use to evaluate our business.
Years Ended December 31,
202220212020
(in millions)
Network Volume$7,307 $4,904 $1,591 
Network Volume
We believe the Network Volume metric to be a suitable proxy for our overall scale and reach, as we generate revenue primarily on the basis of Network Volume. Network Volume is driven by our relationships with our Partners, and we believe that this has benefited from continuous improvements to our AI technology, enabling our network to more effectively identify assets for acquisition by the Financing Vehicles, thereby providing additional investment opportunities to investors. Network Volume is comprised of assets across several asset classes, including personal loans, auto loans, residential real estate, credit card receivables and point of sale receivables.
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Components of Results of Operations
Revenue
We generate revenue from network AI fees, contract fees, interest income and investment income. Network AI fees and contract fees are presented together as Revenue from fees in the consolidated financial statements. Revenue from fees is recognized after applying the five-step model consistent with Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 606, “Revenue from Contracts with Consumers” (“ASC 606”).
Network AI fees. Network AI fees can be further broken down into two fee streams: AI integration fees and capital markets execution fees. We earn AI integration fees from our Partners in our Financing Vehicles for the creation, sourcing and delivery of the assets that comprise our Network Volume. Multiple funding channels are utilized to enable the purchase of network assets from our Partners, such as ABS. Capital markets execution fees are earned from the market pricing of ABS transactions.
Contract fees. Contract fees primarily include administration and management fees, and performance fees. Administration and management fees are contracted upon the establishment of Financing Vehicles and are earned and collected over their remaining lives. Performance fees are earned when certain Financing Vehicles exceed contractual return hurdles and a significant reversal in the amount of cumulative revenue recognized is not expected to occur.
We also earn interest income from our risk retention holdings and cash balances and investment income associated with our ownership interests in certain Financing Vehicles and other proprietary investments.
Costs and Operating Expenses
Costs and operating expenses consist of Production Costs, research and development expenses, sales and marketing expenses, and general and administrative expenses. Salaries and personnel-related costs, including benefits, bonuses, share-based compensation, and outsourcing comprise a significant component of several of these expense categories. A portion of our non-share-based compensation expense and, to a lesser extent, certain operating expenses (excluding Production Costs) are denominated in the new Israeli shekel (“NIS”), which could result in variability in our operating expenses which are presented in U.S. Dollars.
Production Costs
Production Costs are primarily comprised of expenses incurred when Network Volume is transferred from our Partners into Financing Vehicles, as our Partners are responsible for marketing and customer interaction and facilitating the flow of additional application flow. Accordingly, the amount and growth of our Production Costs are highly correlated to Network Volume. Additionally, but to a lesser extent, Production Costs also include expenses incurred to renovate single family residential real estate.
Research and Development
Research and development expenses primarily comprise costs associated with the maintenance and ongoing development of our network and AI technology, including personnel, allocated costs, and other development-related expenses. Research and development costs are expensed as incurred, net of capitalization. We have invested and believe continued investments in research and development are important to achieving our strategic objectives.
Sales and Marketing
Sales and marketing expenses, related to Partner onboarding and development, as well as investor and potential investor management, are comprised primarily of salaries and personnel-related costs, as well as the costs of certain professional services, and allocated overhead. Sales and marketing expenses are expensed as incurred. Sales and marketing expenses in absolute dollars may fluctuate from period to period based on the timing of our investments in our sales and marketing functions. These investments may vary in scope and scale over future periods depending on our pipeline of new Partners and strategic investors.
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General and Administrative
General and administrative expenses primarily comprise personnel-related costs for our executives, finance, legal and other administrative functions, professional fees for external legal, accounting and other professional services and allocated overhead costs. General and administrative expenses are expensed as incurred.
Other Income (loss), net
Other Income (loss), net primarily consists of changes in the fair value of warrant liabilities and other non-recurring items, such as other than temporary impairment of investments in loans and securities.
Income Tax Expense
We account for taxes on income in accordance with ASC 740, “Income Taxes” (“ASC 740”). We are eligible for certain tax benefits in Israel under the Law for the Encouragement of Capital Investments or the Investment Law at a reduced tax rate of 12%. Accordingly, as we generate taxable income in Israel, our effective tax rate is expected to be lower than the standard corporate tax rate for Israeli companies, which is 23%. Our taxable income generated outside of Israel or derived from other sources in Israel which is not eligible for tax benefits will be subject to the regular corporate tax rate in their respective tax jurisdictions.
Net Income Attributable to Noncontrolling Interests
Net income attributable to noncontrolling interests in our consolidated statements of operations is a result of our investments in certain of our consolidated variable interest entities (‘‘VIEs’’) and consists of the portion of the net income of these consolidated entities that is not attributable to us.
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Results of Operations
The results of operations presented below should be reviewed in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and notes included elsewhere in this prospectus.
Year Ended December 31,
202220212020
Revenue
Revenue from fees$685,414 $445,866 $91,740 
Other Income
Interest income57,758 28,877 6,993 
Investment income (loss)5,756 (155)277 
Total Revenue and Other Income
748,928 474,588 99,010 
Costs and Operating Expenses
Production costs451,084 232,324 49,085 
Research and development (1)
150,933 66,211 12,332 
Sales and marketing (1)
104,203 49,627 5,668 
General and administrative (1)
294,213 132,235 10,672 
Total Costs and Operating Expenses
1,000,433 480,397 77,757 
Operating income (loss)(251,505)(5,809)21,253 
Other loss, net(24,869)(55,839)(55)
Income (loss) before income taxes(276,374)(61,648)21,198 
Income tax expense16,400 7,875 1,276 
Net income (loss)(292,774)(69,523)19,922 
Less: Net income attributable to noncontrolling interests9,547 21,628 5,452 
Net loss attributable to Pagaya Technologies Ltd. $(302,321)$(91,151)$14,470 
Per share data:
Net loss attributable to Pagaya Technologies Ltd. $(302,321)$(91,151)$14,470 
Less: Undistributed earnings allocated to participated securities(12,205)(19,558)(9,558)
Less: Deemed dividend distribution— (23,612)— 
Net loss attributed to Pagaya Technologies Ltd. $(314,526)$(134,321)$4,912 
Net income (loss) per share attributable to Pagaya Technologies Ltd.:
Basic (2)
$(0.69)$(0.69)$0.03 
Diluted (2)
$(0.69)$(0.69)$0.02 
Non-GAAP adjusted net income (loss) (3)
$(32,664)$37,259 $14,599 
Non-GAAP adjusted net income per share:
Basic (2)
$(0.07)$0.19 $0.08 
Diluted (2)
$(0.07)$0.14 $0.07 
Weighted average shares outstanding:
Basic (2)
45,044,846 195,312,586 191,146,436 
Diluted (2)
45,044,846 262,995,525 206,915,248 
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(1)The following table sets forth share-based compensation for the periods indicated below (in thousands):
Year Ended December 31,
 202220212020
Research and development$81,337 $27,042 $89 
Sales and marketing58,377 18,458 
General and administrative101,975 22,285 63 
Total share-based compensation in operating expenses$241,689 $67,785 $156 
Share-based compensation for the year ended December 31, 2022 included compensation of $172.2 million related to the vesting of certain performance-based options, which was included in research and development, sales and marking, and general and administrative expenses. Certain of the performance awards, provided to certain founders and directors, do not contain any time-based employment requirements and are only subject to certain stock performance conditions. Share-based compensation for the year ended December 31, 2021 included compensation of $56.8 million related to the amount paid in excess of the estimated fair value of ordinary shares as of the date of the transactions in connection with a secondary sale.
(2)Prior period amounts have been retroactively adjusted to reflect the 1:186.9 stock split effected on June 22, 2022.
(3)